Cinema that was invented in the last decade of 19th century, flourished in the 20th century and for the most part,it was the most popular and in a way the most creative art format, borrowing from other art forms. After the invention of television, and the production of TV films in the second half of the last century, and later on the internet media and the new age of digitalism and online streaming or stealing of the movies, at least over the past couple of decades, Cinema has lost its glory. At the same time, while in the first half or most of the 20th century, Cinema was heavily in the hands of story tellers, photographers, and actors, who were all led by the filmmaker or the creator, in the last few decades of the past century and more so in the present 21st century, it is dominated by digital special effects and out of reality. So cinema as an art format has greatly transformed to a technical/digital industry. Along the many efforts across the globe to save this modern art against the box office sales pressure and capital demand, this site hopes to contribute a small part in this endeavor!
Cinema initially sprang from photography, so that later on and to this day, it is called “motion picture” or “movies”, while the term “film” could be used for both cinema and photography. In the beginning, cinema was simply, pictures in motion with no other adding arts or technology, such as sound, music, or else, but acting. That is why for the first few decades since the birth of cinema, the movies were “silent” and this art form had to rely basically on the power of imagery with all its cinematographic components and the filmmakers like painters on canvas had to do whatever they could to create a powerful moving picture on the screen in addition to silent acting without talk. In this endeavor, some relied on set design, the use of light and shadows, like the German expressionists, and some relied on editing like Eisenstein, and some relied mostly on acting and sensible realism like Chaplin. At the time and even today, it is easier to rate and rank a silent film, as there were no white noise of sound or talk and all were imagery and picture in motion to measure. Due to simplicity, originality and the role of these pure ingredients, the silent films are still on the top of many best films of all time, such as the works of Serge Eisenstein, Fritz Lang, D.W.Griffith, and Charles Chaplin.
The sound brought theatrical acting to the cinema despite strong oppositions of silent films’ actors who were great action actors, specially in comedy. While 1920’s were still dominated by the silent movies, the 1930’s were the era of infiltration of theatrical acting to cinema that lasted for several decades until the recent domination of special effects and interception of digitalism into cinema. Orson Welles, Humphrey Bogart, Catharine Hepburn, Bette Davis, Vivien Leigh, James Dean and Marlon Brando were such actors who stemmed from theatre or acted as such. This continued to the modern era so that the newer actors such as Robert De Niro, Al Pacino and Leonardo DiCaprio continued with such legacy. The theatrical acting while added rich flavor to the story telling and content through dialogues to the cinema, in many instances became very close to theatrical plays and robbed the cinematic experience and presentation, and limited the filmmakers in showing their talents. This is somewhat parallel to the digital cinema nowadays, where digitalism and special effects have totally stolen the rich cinematic creation.
Lastly cinema as a common art medium unlike other arts, but like music cannot be “an art for art”, but “art for all”. This means that cinema as the only art medium, while being complex and applying other art media for enrichment, it has to be for everyone, entertaining and enlightening all. A great film could please the viewers of all kinds, from the ordinary minds to the most intellectual and critical ones.
Evaluation, rating and ranking movies, is not a matter of personal taste, likeness, or even a collective voting of majority, as the majority could be wrong and do not consider all the components of a film, with a delicate consideration of the differential factors. In other words, the role of camera, acting and editing are not the same and do not carry the similar weights as special effect. Unfortunately this has not been done closely in most rating and ranking of the motion pictures and the best lists, or awards such as Oscar. Beyond the different components of a film, that somewhat and singularly are recognized as in awards for script, acting, editing, directing, etc., the following factors in ranking the best films are essential. (Of course based on the following criteria, the earlier a film, the higher the rank would be, except the films that in addition to these factors, they have the “best impression” that could go beyond the time boundary. This is certainly very rare and on our list could include only a few rare top films such as “The Battleship Potemkin”, “Man with a movie camera” and “Metropolis”. Finally any originality and technicality if not cinematic or visual and at the service of story telling, entertainment or enlightening , like experimental works of some such as Godard do not count in this site evaluation and ranking of the films.
- Originality: No matter how well a film has been made today, if it is a copy of an original work, or an adaptation in one form or another, it would put it out of any best rank. An original work, even if not well done to perfection, it is still original and a creation that needs to be considered. Of course the earlier films fairly take on a lot of credits from this factor, but this may encourage the true filmmakers not to be copiers or followers but original and creative!
- Technicality: This factor should cover all the technical aspects of filmmaking from the story and script to the all works of camera, acting, editing, special effects, etc. The originality and proper application of each technique or component need to be considered in ranking.
- Impact Factor/Significance: This is the factor influencing other films, urging them to copy and experience the original work in part or in whole. This factor is not only the influence that an original work has on the industry, but on people in general and other forms of art and aspects of life as well. In conjunction with the influence that a film could have on other films or else, the significance of the film on cinema as a whole and on the history of this art medium is important and will be counted on.
- Survival: This shows how long a work, no matter how great, it will be remembered and looks fresh for years to come, specially in the eyes of the true cinema patriots.
Throughout this site, in writing on films and ranking them, the above factors will be delicately considered, though no evaluation or ranking could be rightful. Such comprehensive evaluation and ranking will hopefully encourage others to take on such or similar process in ranking and awarding, and avoiding a single factor such as the content of the story for political or trend of the time reasons!
Almost all available films in English or with English subtitles from the early years of inception of cinema in this list have been diligently reviewed. Since the originality criteria is very important and could affect the other criteria of technicality, impact and survival, this review has been so far until the year 2014. The following films that have been on some greatest films lists or have been ranked high or awarded by different organizations, have been particularly more carefully watched and reviewed.
In evaluation and recognition of the great and specifically the greatest films, beyond the factors of originality, technicality, impact factor and survival, the overall and instant impression of a film has been greatly considered. This impression that instantly in the first few minutes of the film befalls on the viewer, is what could move a film up the ladder of time and originality to the top of this list here. This impression factor also could include a film that’s not original in singularity, but original and novel in the application of previous original techniques.
The story content of the film does not bear any importance on this site in recognition and ranking the great films as it is customary in other awards and ranking recognitions. Also any adaptation from other sources such as novels or plays to the film takes off the originality of the film, unless such adaptation has become an original of its own. This list of greatest films of all time, unlike many other such lists is not limited to a certain number, e.g. 100, so it could be less or more and it is also ongoing, though the newer films have less chance or such recognition due to the lower chance of originality.
Lastly cinema as a common art medium unlike other arts, but like music cannot be “an art for art”, but “art for all”. This means that cinema as the only art medium, while being complex and applying other art media for enrichment, it has to be for everyone, entertaining and enlightening all. A great film could please the viewers of all kinds, from the ordinary minds to the most intellectual and critical ones.
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The films in blue colour have been great, the films in green colour the greater, and the film in red colour have been the greatest films of all time in our list:
1906:The story of Kelly Craig (Charles Tait) (Australia)
1911:L’inferno (Francesco Bertolini) (France) / Defence of Sevastopol (A.Khanzonov/V.Goncharov) (Russia)
1912:Cleopatra (C.Gaskil) (USA) / Robin Hood (E.Arnaud/H.Blache) (USA)
1913:Ouo Vadis (Enrico Guazzoni) (Italy) /L’enfent de Paris (Leonce Perret) (France)
1914:Cinderella (J,Kirkwood Sr.)(USA)/The Mysterious X (B.Christensen) (Denmark)
1915:The Birth of a Nation (D.W.Griffith) (USA)/The Golem (P.Wegener/H.Galeen) (Germany) /Alice in the Wonderland (W.W.Young) (USA)/The Italian (R.Barker) (USA)
1916:Intolerance (D.W.Griffith) (USA)/20,000 Leagues under the sea (S.Paton) (USA) /Sherlock Holmes (A.Berthelet) (USA)/The end of the world (A.Blom) (Denmark)
1918:A trip to Mars (Holger-Madsen) (Denmark)
1919:Harariki (F.Lang) (Germany)
1920:The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (R. Wiene) (Germany)/Erotikon (M.Stiller) (Sweden)
1921:The Kid (Chaplin) (USA)
1922:Nanook of the North (R.J. Flahery) (USA)/Nosferatu (F.W.Murnau) (Germany)/Othello (D.Buchowetzki) (Germany)
1923:The Ten Commandments (C.B.DeMille) (USA)
1924:Greed (E.v. Stroheim) (USA) /America (W.D.Griffith) (USA)
1925:The Battleship Potemkin (Eisentein) (USSR)/The Gold Rush (Chaplin) (USA)/Strike (Eisenstein) (USSR) /Orochi (B.Futagawa) (Japan)
1926:The General (B.Keaton) (USA) /Nana (J.Renoir) (France)
1927:Metropolis (Fritz Lang) (Germany)/Wings (W. Wellman) (USA) Sunrise: A song of two humans (F.W.Murnau) (USA)/The Jazz singer (A.Crosland) (USA)/Berlin: Symphony of a great city (W.Ruttmann) (Germany) /October (Ten days that shook the World) (Esienstein) (USSR)/The end of Petersburg (V.Pudovkin/M.Doller) (USSR)
1928:The Crowd (K.Vidor) (USA)/The passion of Joan of arc (C.T. Dreyer) (France)/The last command (J.v. Sternberg) (USA)/The circus (Chaplin) (USA)
1929:Man with a movie camera (D.Vertov) (Russia)/Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog) (L.Bunuel) (Spain)/Pandora’s box (G.W.Pabst) (Germany) /The Broadway melody (H.Beaumont) (USA)/Tokyo March (Mizoguchi) (Japan)
1930:All quiet on the western front (L.Milestone) (USA)/Earth (A. Dovezhneko) (USSR)/L’age d’or (Luis Bunuel) (Spain)/The blue angel (E.Dmytryk) (Germany)/A’ propos de Nice (J.Vigo) (France)
1931:Dracula (T.Browning)(USA)/City lights (Chaplin) (USA) Grand Hotel (E.Goulding) (USA) /M (F.Lang) (Germany) Cimarron (W.Ruggles) (USA)/Frankenstein (J.Whale) (USA)
1932:Cavalcade (F.Lloyd) (USA)/A farewell to arms (F. Borzage) (USA)/Trouble in paradise (E.Lubitsch) (USA)/Freaks (T.Browning) (USA)/Boudu saved from drowning (J.Renoir) (France)/Scarface (H.Hawks) (USA)/L’Atlantide (G.W.Pabst) (Germany/France)
1933:Baby face (A.Green) (USA)/King Kong (M.Cooper/ E.Schoedsack) (USA) /Duck soup (L.McCarey) (USA)/42nd street (L.Bacon/B.Berkeley) (USA)/Zero for conduct (J.Vigo) (France)/Don Quixote (G.W.Pabst) (France/England))/Land without bread (L.Bunuel) (Spain)/The Invisible Man (J.Whale) (USA)
1934:It’s a gift (N.Mcleod) (USA)/Three songs about Lenin (D.Vertov) (USSR)
1935:The 39 steps (Hitchcock) (USA)/Triumph of the will (L.Rienfenstahl) (Germany)/The informer (J.Ford) (USA)/The Bride of Frankenstein (J.Whale) (USA)/A night at the opera (S.Wood) (USA)/Top hat (M.Sandrich) (USA)
1936:Modern times (Chaplin) (USA)/The great Ziegfeld (R.Z.Leonard) (USA)/Camille (G.Cukor) (USA)/The crime of Monsieur Lange (J.Renoir) (Franace)/Swing time (G.Stevens) (USA)/Night mail (H.Smith) (USA)
1937: La Grand illusion (J.Renoir) (France) /Pepe le Moko (J.Duvivier) (France) /Snow white and the seven dwarfs (USA)(W.Disney/D.Hand/W.Jackson/L.Morey/P.Pearce/B.Sharpsteen) Humanity and paper balloons (S.Yamanaka) (Japan)/The awful truth (L.McCarey) (USA)
1938:Alexander Nevsky (Eisenstein) (Russia)/The lady vanishes (Hitchcock) (USA)/Pygmalion (A.Asquith/L.Howard) (USA)/You can’t take it with you (F.Capra) (USA)/Olympia (L.Reifenestahl) (Germany)/Jezebel (W.Wyler) (USA)/The Adventures of Robin Hood (M.Curtiz) (USA)
1939:Le jour se leve (M.Carne) (France)/The rules of the game (J.Renoir) (France) /The wizard of Oz (V.Fleming) (USA)/Gone with the wind (V.Fleming) (USA)/Stagecoach (J.Ford) (USA)/Ninotchka (E.Lubitsch) (USA)/Wuthering heights (W.Wyler) (USA)
1940:Fantasia (S.Armstrong/J.Algar…) (USA)/The great dictator (Chaplin) (USA)/The grapes of wrath (J.Ford) (USA)/Rebecca (Hitchcock) (USA)/Pinocchio (W.Disney/B.Sharpsteen…) (USA)/The Philadelphia Story (G.Cukor) (USA)
1941:Citizen Kane (O.Welles) (USA)/The Maltese Falcon (J.Huston) (USA)/How green was my valley (J.Ford) (USA)/Sullivan’s Travels (P.Sturges) (USA)/The Lady Eve (P.Sturges) (USA)
1942:Casablanca (M.Curtiz) (USA)/The magnificent Ambersons (O.Welles) (USA)/Mrs. Miniver (W.Wyler) (USA)/Listen to Britain (H.Jennings) (England)
1943:The life and death of colonel Blimp (M.Powell) (England) Titanic (H.Selpin) (Germany)/Shadow of a Doubt (Hitchcock) (USA)
1944:Going my way (L.McCarey) (USA)/Double indemnity (B.Wilder) (USA)/Gaslight (G.Cukor) (USA)/Meet Me in St. Louis (V.Minnelli) (USA)/Laura (O.Preminger) (USA)
1945:Brief encounter (D.Lean) (USA)/The lost weekend (B.Wilder) (USA)/Spellbound (Hitchcock) (USA)/Children of paradise (M.Carne) (France)/Detour (E.Ulmer) (USA)/Rome, Open City (R.Rossellini) (Italy)/The turning point (Fridrikh Ermler) (Russia)/A diary for Timothy (H.Jennings) (England)
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1946:The best years of our lives (W.Wyler) (USA)/It’s a wonderful life (F.Capra) (USA)/Notorious (Hichcock) (USA)/My darling Celmentine (J.Ford) (US)/Beauty and the beast (J.Cocteau) (France) The Killers (R.Siodmak) (USA)
1947:Gentleman’s agreement (E.Kazan) (USA)/Out of the past (J.Tourneur) (England)
1948:The Fallen idol (C.Reed) (England)/Bicycle thieves (De Sica) (Italy)/The treasure of Sierra Madre (J.Huston) (USA)/Hamlet (L.Olivier) (England)/Monsieur Vincent (M.Cloche) (France)/Letter from an unknown woman (M.Ophuls) (USA)/Red River (H.Hawks) (USA)/The red shoes (M.Powell) (England)/Macbeth (O.Welles) (USA)/Germany year zero (R.Rossellini) (Italy)/La Terra Trema (Luchino Visconti) (Italy)/Le sang des bêtes (G.Franj) (France)/ Drunken Angel (Kurosawa) (Japan)
1949:Kind hearts and coronets (R.Hamer) (England)/The Third Man (C.Reed) (England)/All the king’s men (R.Rossen) (USA)/Late spring (Y.Ozu) (Japan)
1950:Rashomon (Kurosawa) (Japan)/All about Eve (J.Mankiewicz) (USA)/Sunset Blvd. (B.Wilder) (USA)/The walls of Malapaga (R.Clement) (France)/In a lonely place (N.Ray) (USA)/Orphee (J.Cocteau) (France)/Los Olvidados (L.Bunuel) (Spain)
1951:Miss Julie (Alf Sjoberg) (Sweden)/A streetcar named Desire (E. Kazan) (USA)/An American in Paris (V. Minnelli) (USA)/The African Queen (J. Huston) (USA)/Diary of a country priest (R.Bresson) (France)/The River (J.Renoir) (France)/Othello (O.Welles) (USA)/The day the Earth stood still (Robert Wise) (USA)
1952:Forbidden games (R. Clement) (France)/Ikiru (Kurosawa) (Japan)/The importance of being earnest (A. Asquith) (England) Umberto D. (De Sica) (Italy)/The white sheik (Fellini) (Italy)/High noon (Fred Zinnemann) (USA)/The quiet man (J.Ford) (USA)/Limelight (Chaplin) (USA)/Singin’ in the rain(G.Kelly/S.Donen) (USA)
1953:M.Hulot’s holiday (J.Tati) (France)/Ugetsu (K.Mizoguchi) (Japan)/The wages of fear (H.G. Clouzot) (France/Italy)/Tokyo story (Y.Ozu) (Japan)/The war of the worlds (B.Haskin) (USA)/Julius Caesar (J.Mankiewicz) (USA)/Shane (G.Stevens) (USA)/From here to eternity (F.Zinnemann) (USA)/Roman holiday (W.Wyler) (USA)/The robe (H.Coster) (USA)/The earrings of Madame De..(M.Ophuls) (France)
1954:Seven Samurai (Kurosawa) (Japan)/La Strada (Fellini) (Italy) / On the waterfront (Kazan) (USA)/Gate of hell (T.Kinugasa) (Japan) Journey to Italy (Rossellini) (Italy)/Rear window (Hitchcock) (USA) Godzilla (I.Honda) (Japan)/Twenty-four eyes (K.Kinoshita) (Japan) Johnny guitar (N.Ray) (USA)/Sansho the Bailiff (Mizoguchi) (Japan) A star is born (G.Cukor) (USA)/Sabrina (B.Wilder) (USA)/Seven brides for seven brothers (S.Donen) (USA)
1955:Richard III (L.Olivier) (England)/Summertime (D.Lean) (USA) / Apu Trilogy (Pather Panchali) (Satyajit Ray) (India)/Oklahoma (F.Zinnemann) (USA)/Rebel without a cause (Kazan) (USA)/Samurai, the legend of Musashi (H.Inagaki) (Japan)/Smiles of a summer night (I.Bergman) (Sweden)/The night of the hunter (C.Laughton) (USA)/Les diaboliques (H.G.Clouzot) (France)/Marty (D.Mann) (USA)/East of Eden (Kazan) (USA)/To catch a thief (Hitchcock) (USA)
1956:The Searchers (J.Ford) (USA)/The ten commandments (C.B.DeMille) (USA)/Giant (G.Stevens) (USA)/The king and I (W.Lang) (USA)/The silent world (J.Cousteau) (France)/Invasion of the body snatchers (D.Siegel) (USA)/A Man Escaped (Bresson) (France)/The Burmese Harp (K.Ichikawa) (Japan)/Written on the wind (D.Sirk) (USA)/And God created woman (R.Vadim) (France)/Night and fog (A.Resnais) (France)/Apu trilogy (Aparajito) (S.Ray) (India)/Moby Dick (J.Huston) (USA)/The Red Balloon (Albert Lamorisse) (France)
1957: The seventh seal (Bergman) (Sweden)/Wild strawberries (Bergman) (Sweden)/12 angry men (S.Lumet) (USA)/Nights of Cabiria (Fellini) (Italy)/Sweet smell of success (A.Mackendrick) (USA) Peyton place (M.Robson) (USA)/Paths of glory (Kubrick) (USA)/The cranes are flying (M.Kalatazov) (Russia)/Throne of blood (Kurosawa) (Japan)/The bridge on the river Kwai (D.Lean) (USA)
1958:Ashes and diamonds (A.Wajda) (Poland)/Ivan the terrible, part II (Eisenstein) (Russia)/Cat on a hot tin roof (R.Brooks) (USA) Mon Oncle (J.Tati) (France)/Vertigo (Hitchcock) (USA)/Touch of evil (O.Welles) (USA)/The hidden fortress (Kurosawa) (Japan)
1959:Ballad of a soldier (G.Chukhrai) (Russia)/Fires on the plain (K.Ichikawa) (Japan)/Floating weeds (Y.Ozu) (Japan)/The 400 blows (Trauffaut) (France)/Some like it hot (B.Wilder) (USA)/Ben Hur (W.Wyler) (USA)/Anatomy of a murder (O.Preminger) (USA) Black Orpheus (O.Negro) (France)/North by Northwest (Hitchcock) USA)/Hiroshima, mon amour (A.Resnais) (France)/Pickpocket (Bresson) (France)/Il generale Della Rovere (Rossellini) (Italy)/The human condition (M.Kobayashi) (Japan)/Moi, un noir (J. Rouch) (France)/Rio Bravo (H.Hawks) (USA)/The Great War (M.Monicelli) (Italy/France)/A summer place (D. Daves) (USA)/Apu Trilogy (The World of Apu) (S.Ray) (India)/The Unsent letter (M.Kalatazov) (USSR)
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1960:L’Avventura (Antonioni) (Italy)/The virgin spring (Bergman) (Sweden)/Breathless (Godard) (France)/La Dolce Vita (Fellini) (Italy) Psycho (Hitchcock) (USA)/The apartment (B.Wilder) (USA)/Two women (De Sica) (Italy)/Eyes without a face (G.Franju) (France) / Rocco and his brothers (L.Visconti) (Italy)/When a woman ascends the stairs (M.Naruse) (Japan)/Purple Noon (R.Clement) (France)/The magnificent seven (J.Sturges) (USA)/Peeping Tom (M.Powell) (England)/Spartacus (Kubrick) (USA)/Cimarron (A.Mann) (USA)/ Ocean’s Eleven (L.Milestone) (USA)/The World of Suzie Wong (R.Quine) (England/USA)/Elmer Gantry (R.Brooks) (USA)/Shoot the piano player (Truffaut) (France)
1961:Il Posto (E.Olmi) (Italy)/Viridiana (Bunuel) (Spain) West side story (R.Wise) (USA)/Through a glass darkly (Bergman) (Sweden)/The long absence (H.Colpi) (France)/Yojimbo (Kurosawa) (Japan)/Splendor in the grass (Kazan) (USA)/La Notte (Antonioni) (Italy)/Breakfast at Tiffany’s (B.Edwards) (USA)/One, two, three (B.Wilder) (USA)/The Hustler (R.Rossen) (USA)/Barabbas (Richard Fleischer) (Italy)
1962:Jules and Jim (Trauffaut) (France)/Knife in the water (Polanski) (Poland)/Lawrence of Arabia (D.Lean) (USA)/To kill a mockingbird (R.Mulligan) (USA)/Sundays and Cybele (S.Bourguignon) (France)/Keeper of promises (A.Duarte) (Brazil)/La Jetee (C.Marker) (France)/The Manchurian candidate (J.Frankenheimer) (USA)Birdman of Alcatraz (J.Frankenheimer) (USA)/Cape fear (J.L.Thompson) (USA)/Lolita (Kubrick) (USA)/Sweet bird of youth (R.Brooks) (USA)/Ivan’s childhood (A.Tarkovsky) (Russia)/L’Eclisse (Antonioni) (Italy)/Salvatore Giuliano (F.Rosi) (Italy)/Harakiri (Kobayashi) (Japan)/Cleo from 5 to 7 (A.Varda) (France/Italy)/The trial (O. Welles) (USA)/Sanjuro (Kurosawa) (Japan)/Two weeks in another town (V.Minnelli) (USA)/Phaedra (J.Dassin) (France)/My life to live (Godard) (France)
1963:81/2 (Fellini) (Italy)/Eat (A.Warhol) (USA)/America America (Kazan) (USA)/How the west was won (J.Ford/ H.Hathaway/ G.Marshall) (USA)/Lilies of the field (R.Nelson) (USA)/The Leopard (Visconti) (Italy)/Charade (S.Donen) (USA)/The Birds (Hitchcock) (USA)/Contempt (Le Mepris) (Godard) (France)/The house is black (F.Farokhzad) (Iran)/The Pink Panther (B.Edwards) (USA)/The Silence (Bergman) (Sweden)/Shock corridor (S.Fuller) (USA)/Winter Light (Bergman) (Sweden)/Jason and Argonauts (J.Chaffey) (USA)/The Great Escape (J.Sturges) (USA)/It’s a mad, mad, mad world (S.Kramer) (USA)/Cleopatra (J.Mankiewicz) (USA)/Lord of the flies (P.Brook) (USA)/The Servant (J.Losey) (Italy)/The fire within (L.Malle) (France)/Pour la suite du monde (Pierre Perrault) (Canada)/Le petit soldat (Godard) (France)/The Big City (S.J.Ray) (India)
1964:Dr.Strangelove or: How I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb (Kubrick) (USA)/For a fistful of dollars (S.Leone) (Italy)/Becket (P.Glenville) (England/USA)/Yesterday, today, tomorrow (De Sica) (Italy)/The umbrellas of Cherbourg (J.Demy) (France)/Band a part (Band or outsiders) (Godard) (France)/A Hard day’s night (R.Lester) (England)/The naked kiss (S.Fuller) (USA)/Hamlet (S.Kozintsev) (Russia)/Marriage Italian style (De Sica) (Italy) The Gospel according to St.Matthew (Pasolini) (Italy)/Scorpio rising (K.Anger) (USA)/Nobody waved goodbye (Don Owen) (Canada)/Mary Poppins (R.Stevenson) (USA)/Goldfinger (G.Hamilton) (USA)/I am Cuba (Kalataov) (USSR)/The fall of the Roman Empire (A.Mann) (USA)/Diamonds of the Night (Jan Němec) (Czechoslovakia)/Before the Revolution (Bertolucci) (Italy)/Black Peter (M.Forman) (Czechoslovakia)/My Fair Lady (G.Cukor) (USA)/Red Desert (Antonioni) (Italy)/The night of the Iguana (J.Huston) (USA)/Kwaidan (Kobayashi) (Japan)/Gate of flesh (S.Suzuki) (Japan)
1965:Fists in the pocket (M.Bellocchio) (Italy)/Loves of a blonde (M.Forman) (Czechoslovakia)/Dr.Zhivago (D.Lean) (USA)/The sound of music (R.Wise) (USA)/The shop on Main street (Jan Kadar/Elmar Klos) (Czechoslovakia)/The knack…and how to get it (Richard Lester) (England)/Pierrot le fou (Godard) (France)/Cat Ballou (Elliot Silverstein) (USA)/Repulsion (Polanski) (England)/Chimes at midnight (O. Welles) (USA)/Red beard (Kurosawa) (Japan) Sandra of a Thousand Delights (Visconti) (Italy)/Alphaville (Godard) (France)
1966:The battle of Algiers (Gilo Pontecorvo) (Italy/Algeria)/ The good, the bad and the ugly (S.Leone) (Italy)/A man for all seasons (Fred Zinnemann) (England)/The sand pebbles (R.Wise) (USA)/Who’s afraid of Virginia Woolf? (Mike Nichols) (USA)/A man and a woman (Claude Lelouch) (France)/Au hazard Balthazar (Bresson) (France/Sweden)/Persona (Bergman) (Sweden)/Andrei Rublev (A.Tarkovsky) (USSR)/Blow-up (Antonioni) (Italy)/Farenheit 451 (Trauffaut) (France)/Tokyo drifter (S.Suzuki) (Japan)/Black girl (O.Sembene) (France/Senegal)/War and Peace (King Vidor) (USA)/Alfie (Lewis Gilbert) (USA)/The Chase (Arthur Penn) (USA)/Torn Curtain (Hitchcock) (USA)/Is Paris burning? (Rene Clement) (France)
1967:Bonnie and Clyde (Arthur Penn) (USA)/The Graduate (Mike Nichols) (USA)/In the heat of the night (Norman Jewison) (USA) Closely watched trains (Jiri Menzel) (Czechoslovakia)/Playtime (Jacques Tati) (France)/The producers (Mel Brooks) (USA)/Mouchette (Bresson) (France)/The dirty dozen (Robert Aldrich) (USA/England)/The taming of the shrew (Franco Zeffirelli) (USA)/Le Samurai (jean-Pierre Melville) (France)/Belle de Jour (Luis Bunuel) (France/Italy)/Memories of underdevelopment (Tomas Gutieerz Alea) (Cuba)/Wavelength (Michael Snow) (Canada/USA) Don’t look back (D.A. Pennebaker) (USA)/Titicut follies (Fredrick Wiseman) (USA)/Portrait of Jason (Shirley Clarke) (USA)/Cool Hand Luke (Stuart Rosenberg) (USA)/Guess who’s coming to dinner (Stanley Cramer) (USA)/War and peace (Segei Bondarchuk) (Russia)/Doctor Faustus (Richard Burton/Nevil Coghill) (England) Barefoot in the park (Gene Saks) (USA)/Wait until dark (Terence Young) (USA)/In cold blood (Richard Brooks) (USA)/Camelot (Joshua Logan) (USA)/A countess from Hong Kong (Chaplin) (USA)/Oedipus Rex (Pasolini) (Italy)/Reflection in a golden eye (John Huston) (USA)
1968:Planet of the Apes (Franklin Schaffner) (USA)/2001: A space odyssey (Kubrick) (USA)/Night of the living dead (George Romero) (USA)/Oliver (Carol Reed) (England)/Romeo and Juliet (Franco Zeffirelli) Italy/England)/The Lion in the winter (Anthony Harey) (England/USA)/Once upon a time in the west (S.Leone) (Italy) Faces (John Cassavetes) (USA)/Rosemary’s baby (R.Polanski) (USA) The swimmer (Frank Oerry/Sydney Polack) (USA)/Two comrades were serving (Yevgeny Karelov) (Russia)/Kuroneko (The Black Cat) (Kaneto Shindo) (Japan)/Walden (Diaries, notes and sketches) (Jonas Mekas) (USA)/Bullitt (Peter Yates) (USA)/Shame (Ingmar Bergman) (Sweden)/Hour of the Wolf (Bergman) (Sweden)/Funny Girl (William Wyler) (USA)/Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (Ken Hughes) (USA/England)/The Party (Blake Edwards) (USA)/Isadora (Karek Reisz) (England/France)/Charly (Ralph Nelson) (USA) Stolen Kisses (Truffaut) (France)/Rachel, Rachel (Paul Newman) (USA)/The Boston Strangler (Richard Fleischer)/The Shoes of the Fisherman (Michael Anderson) (USA)/If…. (Lindsay Anderson) (England)
1969:Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (George Roy Hill) (USA) Midnight cowboy (John Schlesinger) (USA)/Z(Costa-Gavras) (Algeria/France)/Wild bunch (Sam Pekinpah) (USA)/They shoot horses, don’t they? (Sydney Pollack) (USA) /Army of shadows (Jean-Pierre Melville) (France) /The sorrow and the pity (Marcel Ophuls) (France)/My night at Maud’s (Eric Rohmer) (France)/Easy Rider (Dennis Hopper) (USA)/The Red Tent (Mikhail Kaltozov) (USSR)/ Salesman (Albert & David Maysles/Charlotte Zwerin) (USA/Fellini’s Satyricon (Fellini) (Italy)/The passion of Anna (Bergman (Sweden)/Topaz (Hitchcock) (USA)/The Cow (Dariush Mehrjui) (Iran)
1970:Patton (Frankiln Schaffner) (USA)/Investigation of a citizen above suspicion (Elio Petri) (Italy)/Tristana (Luis Bunuel) (Spain/France/Italy)/The Conformist (Bernardo Bertolucci) (Italy/France)/Dodes’ka-den (Kurosawa) (Japan)/Love Story (Arthur Hiller) (USA)/MASH (Robert Altman) (USA)/The Wild Child (Truffaut) (France)/Little Big Man (Arthur Penn) (USA)/Le Boucher (Claude Chabrol) (France/Italy)/Goin’ Down the Road (Don Shebib) (Canada)/The Artistocats (Wolfgang Reitherman) (USA)/Ryan’s Daughter (David Lean) (England)/Five Easy Pieces (Bob Rafelson) (USA)/Valerie and her week of wonders (Jaromil Jires) (Csechoslovakia) /Le cercle rouge (Jean-Pierre Melville) (France)/Claire’s Knee (Eric Rohmer) (France)/The twelve chairs (Mel Brooks) (USA)/Airport (George Seaton) (USA) The Kremlin letter (John Huston) (USA)/The Garden of the Finzi-Continis (de Sica) (Italy)/The Flight (Aleksandr Alov) (USSR)
1971:A Clockwork orange (Kubrick) (England/USA)/The French connection (William Friedkin) (USA)/Fiddler on the roof (Norman Jewison) (USA)/Straw dogs (Sam Peckinpah) (England/USA)/The go-between (Joseph Losey) (England/USA)/Death in Venice (Visconti) (Italy/France)/King Lear (Grigori Kozintsev) (USSR)/Wake in Fright (Ted Kotcheff) (Australia)/Last Picture Show (Peter Bogdanovich) (USA)/Ragbar (Downpour) (Bahram Bayzai) (Iran)/Dirty Harry (Don Siegel) (USA)/Klute (Alan J. Pakula) (USA)/Mon Onlce Antoine (Claude Jutra) (Canada)/McCabe & Mrs. Miller (Robert Altman) (USA)/Macbeth (Polanski) (USA/England)/A touch of Zen (King Hu) (China) Trafic (Jaque Tati) (France)/The Panic in the needle park (Jerry Schatzberg) (USA)/Johnny got his gun (Dalton Trumbo) (USA)/Land of Silence and darkness (Werner Herzog) (Germany)/Nicholas and Alexandra (Franklin Schaftner) (England)/Bananas (Woody Allen) (USA)/The working class goes to heaven (Eli Petri) (Italy)/Ragbar (Downpour) (Bahram Bayzai) (Iran)
1972:Fritz the cat (Ralph Bakshi) (USA)/The Godfather (F.Coppola) (USA)/The discreet charm of the bourgeoisie (Bunuel) (France /Spain/Italy)/Aguirre:The wrath of God (Werner Herzog) (West Germany)/Junior Bonner (Peckinpah) (USA)/Cabaret (Bobe Fosse) (USA)/Quiz Show (Robert Redford) (USA)/Last Tango in Paris (Bertolucci) (Italy/France)/Man of La Mancha (Arthur Hiller) (USA/Italy)/The True Nature of Bernadette (Gilles Carle) (Canada)/Roma (Fellini) (Italy)/The bitter tear of Petra von Kant (Fassbinder) (W.Germany)/Cries and Whispers (Bergman) (Sweden)/ Jeremiah Johnson (Sydney Pollack) (USA)/Deliverance (John Boorman) (USA)/Slaughterhouse-Five (George Roy Hill) (USA)/Frenzy (Hitchcock) (USA)/Everything you always wanted to know about sex, but were afraid to ask (Woody Allen) (USA)/State of Siege (C.Gavras) (France)
1973:The spirit of the beehive (Victor Erice) (Spain)/The Sting (George Roy Hill) (USA)/Day for night (Francois Truffaut) (France)/Badlands (Terrence Malick) (USA)/Don’t look now (Nicolas Roeg) (England/Italy)/The exorcist (William Friedkin) (USA)/Papillion (Frankiln Schaffner) ((USA/France)/We all loved each other so much (Etoore Scola) (Italy)/Amarcord (Fellini) (Italy)/American Graffiti (George Lucas) (USA)/Mean Streets (Scorsese) (USA)/Scenes from a Marriage (Bergman) (Sweden)/Paper Moon (Bogdanovich) (USA)/The Experience (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/Save the Tiger (John Avlidsen) (USA)/Serpico (Sydney Lumet) (USA)/Immoral Tales (Walerian Borowczyk) (France)/Harmonica (Sazdahani) (Amir Naderi) (Iran)/Sleeper (Woody Allen) (USA)/The way we were (Sydney Pollack) (USA)/A simple event (Sohrab Shahid-Saless) (Iran)
1974:Chinatown (Polanski) (USA)/The conversation (Francis Ford Coppola) (USA)/Scent of a woman (Dino Risi) (Italy)/Blazing Saddles (Mel Brooks) (USA)/The Enigma of Kasper Hauser (Werner Herzog) (W.Germany)/Young Frankestein (Mel Brooks) (USA)/Ali: Fear eats the soul (Rainer Werner Fassbinder) (W.Germany)/The Great Gatsby (Jack Clayton) (USA)/Celine and Julie go boating (Jacques Rivette) (France)/The Taking of Pelham One Two Three (Joseph Sargent) (USA)/The Towering Inferno (John Guillermin) (USA)/The Godfather Part II (F.Coppola) (USA)/The Yakuza (S.Pollack) (USA/Japan)/The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (Tobe Hooper) (USA)/The Traveller (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/Les Ordres (Michel Brault) (Canada)/Murder on the Orient Express (S.Lumet) (USA/England)/Alice doesn’t live here anymore (Scorsese) (USA)/The Night Porter (Liliana Cavani) (Italy/USA)/Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (Ted Kotcheff) (Canada)/The Phantom of Liberty (Bunuel) (France/Italy)/Arabian Nights (Pasolini) (Italy)/Bring me the head of Alfredo Garcia (Peckinpah) (USA)
1975:Monty Python and the Holy Grail (Terry Gilliam/Terry Jones) (England)/Jaws (Spielberg) (USA)/One flew over the Cuckoo’s nest (Milos Forman) (USA)/Barry Lyndon (Kubrick) (England/USA)/Dog day afternoon (Sidney Lumet) (USA)/Dersu Uzala (Kurosawa) (Japan/USSR)/The story of Adele H (Truffaut) (France)/Mirror (Andrei Tarkovski) (USSR)/The lost honour of Katharina Blum (Volker Schlondorff/Margarethe von Trotta) (W.Germany)/Jeanne Dileman, 23 quai du commerce, 1080 Bruxelles (Chantal Akerman) (Belgium/France)/Still Life (Sohrab Shahid-Saless) (Iran)/Grey gardens (Albert Maysles/David Maysles) (USA)/The battle of Chile Part I (Patricio Guzman) (Chile) /Nashville (R.Altman) (USA)/The Magic Flute (Bergman) (Sweden)/Requiem (Amir Naderi) (Iran)/Dayereh Mina (The Cycle) (Dariush Mehrjui)/The Messiah (Rossellini)(Italy/France)/ Shampoo (W. Beatty) (USA) /The Passenger (Antonioni) (Italy/Spain/France)/The man who would be King (J. Huston)(USA/England)
1976:Taxi driver (Scorsese) (USA)/Rocky (John Avildsen) (USA)/All the President’s Men (Alan J.Pakula) (USA)/Network (S.Lumet) (USA)/Black and white in color (Jean Jacques Annaud) (France)/ Seven beauties (Lina Wertmuller) (Italy)/Harlan county USA (Barbara Kopple) (USA)/In the realm of the senses (Nagisa Oshima) (Japan)/The Tenant (Polanski) (France)/The Omen (Richard Donner) (England/USA)/A Wedding Suit (Abbas Kiarostami)/Marathon Man (John Schlesinger) (USA)/1900 (Bertolucci) (Italy)/Fellini’s Casanova (Italy)
1977:Star Wars: Episode IV- A new hope (George Lucas) (USA)/Padre Pardone (Paolo/Vittorio Taviani) (Italy)/Annie Hall (W.Allen) (USA)/The Wishing Tree (Tengiz Abuladze) (Georgia)/Julia (Fred Zinnemann) (USA)/Office romance (Eldar Ryazanov) (Russia)/Report (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/Madame Rosa (Moshe Mirzahi) (France)/Stroszek (Werner Herzog) Germany)/The obscure object of desire (Bunuel) (France/Spain)/House (Nobuhiko Obayashi) (Japan)/Cross of iron (Peckinpah) (USA)/Saturday night fever (John Badham) (USA)/Close encounters of the third kind (Steven Spielberg) (USA)/High Anxiety (Mel Brooks) (USA)/New York, New York (Scorsese) (USA)
1978:The Deer Hunter (Michael Cimino) (USA)/Get out your handkerchiefs (Bertrand Blier) (France)/Moliere (Ariane Mnouchkine) (France)/Grease (Randal Kleiser) (USA)/Autumn Sonata (Bergman) (Sweden/Germany)/The tree of wooden clogs (Ermanno Olmi) (Italy)/Superman (Richard Donner) (USA)/The Lord of the Rings (Raplh Bakhshi)(USA/England)/Heaven can wait (Warren Beatty) (USA)/Desiderium (Sooteh-Delan) (Iran)/The Inglorious Bastards (Enzo Castellari) (Italy)/Les Miserables (Glen Jordan) (England)/The Boys from Brazil (Franklin Schaffner) (USA)/Coming Home (Hal Ashby) (USA)
1979:Alien (Ridley Scott) (USA)/Apocalypse now (Coppola) (USA)/Kramer vs. Kramer (Robert Benton) (USA)/The tin drum (Volker Schlondroff) (Germany/Yugoslavia/Poland/France)/Stalker (Tarkovsky) (Russia)/And justice for all (Norman Jewison) (USA)/The Marriage of Maria Braun (Rainer Werner Fassbinder) (Germany)/Laura (David Hamilton) (France)/Manhattan (W.Allen) (USA)/Monty Python’s Life of Brian (Terry Jones)(England)/Caligula (Tinto Brass) (USA/Italy)/All that jazz (Bob Fosse) (USA)/Being there (Hal Ashby) (USA)/First Case, Second Case (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/The Rose (Mark Rydell) (USA)/Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Robert Wise) (USA)/Tess (Roman Polanski) (France/England)/La Luna (Bertolucci) (Italy)/The China Syndrome (James Bridges) (USA)/Wise Blood (John Huston)
1980:The Shinning (Kubrick) (USA/England)/Airplane (Jim Abrahams/ David & Jerry Zucker) (USA)/Raging Bull (Scorsese) (USA)/Ordinary people (R.Redford) (USA)/Coal’s miner daughter (Michael Apted) (USA)/Moscow does not believe in tears (Vladimir Menshov) (Russia)/Kagemusha (Kurosawa) (Japan)/The last metro (Truffaut) (France)/Mon oncle d’Amerique (Alain Resnais) (France)/Atlantic City (Louis Malle) (France/Canada)/Good Riddance (Les Bons debarras (Francis mankiewicz) (Canada)/The Blues Brothers (John Landis) (USA)/American gigolo (Paul Schrader) (USA)/Health (Robert Altman) (USA)/Heaven’s Gate (Michael Cimino) (USA)/Star Wars : The Empire strikes back (Lucas) (USA)/The Elephant Man (David Lynch) (USA/ England)/Stardust Memories (W.Allen) (USA)
1981:Das Boot (Wolfgang Peterson) (Germany)/Chariots of fire (Hugh Hudson) (England)/Reds (W.Beatty) (USA)/Coup de Trochon (Bernard Tavernier) (France)/Indiana Jones: Raiders of the lost Ark (Spielberg) (USA)/Escape from New York (John Carpenter) (USA)/Mephisto (Istvan Szabo) (Hungry)/Body Heat (Lawrence Kasdan) (USA)/The postman always rings twice (Bob Rafelson) (USA)/History of the World Part I (M.Brooks) (USA)/Escape to Victory (J.Huston) (USA)/Man of iron (Andrzej Wajda) (Poland)/On Golden Pond (Mark Rydell) (USA)/The French Lieutenant’s Woman (Karel Reisz) (England)/The Bunker (George Schaefer) (USA)/Blow out (Brian De Palma) (USA)/Absence of Malice (Sydney Pollack) (USA)
1982:E.T.: The Extra-terrestrial (Spielberg) (USA)/Blade runner (Ridley Scott) (USA)/Pink Floyd: The Wall (Alan Parker/Gerald Scarfe) (England)/Gandhi (Richard Attenborough) (England/India)/Tootsie (Sydney Poolack) (USA)/Missing (Gavras) (France)/Volver a empezar: Begin the Beguine (Jose Luis Garci) (Spain)/Sophie’s choice (Alan J. Pakula) (USA)/Fitzcarraldo (Werner Herzog) (Germany)/First blood (Ted Kotcheff) (USA)/A Midsummer night sex comedy (W. Allen) (USA)/Poltergeist (Tobe Hooper) (USA)/The King of Comedy (Scorsese) (USA)/The Year of Living Dangerously (Peter Weir) (Australia)/Diner (Barry Levinson) (USA)/The Verdict (Sidney Lumet) (USA)/The World according to Garp (George Roy Hill) (USA)/Koyaanisqatsi (Godfrey Reggio) ((USA)
1983:Terms of endearment (James Brooks) (USA)/Fanny and Alexander (Bergman) (Sweden/France/Germany)/Tender mercies (Bruce Berestford) (USA)/The Ballad of Narayama (Shoheil Imamura) (Japan)/Le Bal (Ettora Scola) (Algeria/Italy/France)/Scarface (Brian De Palma) (USA)/A Nos Amours (Maurice Pialat) (France)/Monty Python: the Meaning of Life (Terry Jones) (England)/Local Hero (Bill Forsyth) (England)/Nostalghia (Tarkovsky) (Russia)/Sans Soleil (Chris Marker) (France)/ The Grey Fox (Phillip Borsos) (Canada)/Flashdance (Adrian Lyne) (USA)/L’Argent (R. Bresson) (France)
1984:Amadeus (Milos Forman) (USA)/The killing fields (Ronlad Joffe) (England)/Dangerous moves (Richard Dembo) (France/Switzerland)/ Paris, Texas (Wim Wenders) (Germany/France)/The Terminator (James Cameron) (USA)/Once upon a time in America (Sergio Leone) (Italy)/A Nightmare on Elm Street (Wes Craven) (USA)/Ghostbusters (Ivan Reitman) (USA)/Indian Jones and the Temple of Doom (Lucas) (USA)/The Never Ending Story (Wolfgang Petersen) (Germany)/The Natural (Barry Levinson)(USA)/Nineteen-Eighty-Four (Michael Radford) (England)/Stranger than Paradise (Jim Jarmusch) (USA/Germany)/ Children of the Corn (Fritz Kiersch) (USA)/Birdy (Alan Parker) (USA)/The Cotton Club (Coppola) (USA)/Maria’s Lovers (Andrei Konchalovsky) (USA)/A Passage to India (David Lean) (England/USA)/Broadway Danny Rose (W.Allen) (USA)
1985:Brazil (Terry Gilliam) (England/USA)/Out of Africa (Sydney Pollack) (USA)/The official story (Luis Puenzo) (Argentina)/When father was away on business (Emir Kusturica) (Yugoslavia)/Shoah (Claude Lanzmann)(France)/Purple rose of Cairo (W.Allen) (USA)/Lost in America (Albert Brooks) (USA)/The Runner (Davandeh) (Amir Naderi) (Iran)/Ran (Kurosawa) (Japan/France)/Tampopo (Juzo Itami) (Japan)/My Life as a Dog (Lasse Hallstrom) (Sweden)/My Beautiful Laundrette (Stephen Frears) (England)/Back to the future (Robert Zemeckis) (USA)/Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (Paul Schrader) (USA)/After Hours (Scorsese) (USA)/The Breakfast Club (John Hughes) (USA)/Steaming (J.Losey)(England)/Witness (Peter Weir) (USA)/Death of a Salesman (Volker Schlondorff) (USA)/Plenty (Fred Schpisi) (England/USA)
1986:Platoon (Oliver Stone) (USA)/Hannah and her sisters (W.Allen) (USA)/The assault (Fons Rademakers) (Netherland)/The Decline of the American Empire (Denys Arcand) (Canada)/The Mission (Roland Joffe) (England)/The singing detective (Keith Gordon) (USA)/Blue Velvet (David Lynch) (USA)/Bashu, the little stranger (Bahram Beizaei) (Iran)/ Dust in the Wind (Hou Hsiao-hsien)(Taiwan)/Hadsworth Songs (John Akomfrah) (England)/Top Gun (Tony Scott) (USA)/Nine ½ weeks (Adrian Lyne) (USA)/Stand by Me (Rob Reiner) (USA)/Boycott (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/The Name of the Rose (Jean-Jacques Annaud) (Italy/Germany/France)/The Tenants (Dariush Mehrjui) (Iran)/The Fly (David Cronenberg) (USA)/The Color of Money (Scorsese) (USA)/ Children of a Lesser God (Randa Haines) (USA)/Heartburn (Mike Nichols) (USA)
1987:The last Emperor (Bertolucci) (Italy/England)/Babette’s Feast (Gabriel Axel) (Denmark)/Au revoir les enfents (Louis Malle) (France/Germany)/ Under the Sun of Satan (Maurice Pialat) (France)/Broadcast news (James Brooks) (USA)/Wings of desire (Wim Wenders) (Germany/France)/The Emperor’s naked army marches on (Kazuo Hara) (Japan)/Full Metal Jacket (Kubrick) (USA/England)/Dirty Dancing (Emile Adrolino) (USA)/The Untouchables (Brian De Palma) (USA)/Fatal Attraction (Adrian Lune) (USA)/Where is the Friend’s Home? (Abbas Kiarostami)(Iran)/Robocop (Paul Verhoeven) (USA)/Wall Street (Oliver Stone) (USA)/Empire of the Sun (Spielberg) (USA)/ Moonstruck (Norman Jewison) (USA)/Good Morning Vietnam (Barry Levinson) (USA)/Hope and Glory (John Boorman) (England/USA)/I’ve heard the Mermaids Singing (Patricia Rozema) (Canada)/The Peddler (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Ironweed (Hector Babenco) (USA)/Pelle the Conqueror (Bille August) (Denmark/Sweden)/Cry Freedom (Richard Attenborough) ((England/South Africa)/Radio Days (W.Allen) (USA)/September (W.Allen) (USA)/The Cyclist (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)
1988:The Last Temptation of Christ (Scorsese) (USA)/Rain Man (Barry Levinson) (USA)/Women on the verge of a nervous breakdown (Pedro Almodovar) (Spain)/Dead ringers (David Cronenberg) (Canada/USA)/The unbearable lightness of being (Philip Kaufman) (USA)/Dekalog (Krzysztof Kieslowski) (Poland)/Frantic (Polanski) (USA/France)/Cinema Paradiso (Giuseppe Tornatore) (Italy)/The Accused (Jonathan Kaplan) (USA)/The Beast of War (Kevin Reynolds) (USA)/Dangerous Liaisons (Stephen Frears) (USA)/Akira (Katsuhiro Otomo) (Japan)/The Thin Blue Line (Errol Morris) (USA)
1989:Do the right thing (Spike Lee) (USA) /Indiana Jones and the last crusade (Spielberg) (USA)/Born on the fourth of July (Oliver Stone) (USA)/Dead poets society (Peter Weir) (USA)/Driving Miss Daisy (Bruce Beresford) (USA)/My left foot (Jim Sheridan) (Ireland/England)/Tie me up! Tie me down (Almodovar) (Spain)/Sex, lies and videotapes (Steven Soderbergh) (USA)/The Killer (John Woo) (China)/The Power of Kangwon Province (Hong San-Soo) (South Korea)/Roger and me (Michael Moore) (USA)/Henry V (Kenneth Branagh) (England)/ Jesus of Montreal (Denys Arcand) (Canada)/Glory (Edward Zwick) (USA)/Casualties of War (Brian De Palma) (USA)/Lean on Me (John Avlidsen) (USA)/Crimes and Misdemeanors (W.Allen) (USA)/New York Stories (Scorsese/Coppola/W.Allen) (USA)/Fat Man and Little Boy (Roland Joffe) (USA)/Marriage of the blessed (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)
1990:Goodfellas (Scorsese) (USA)/Dances with wolves (Kevin Kostner) (USA)/Journey of hope (Xavier Koller) (Turkey/Switzerland)/Wild at heart (David Lynch) (USA)/Miller’s crossing (Joel Coen) (USA)/Europa Europa (Agnieszka Holland) (Poland/Germany/France) /Close-up (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/Cyrano de Bergerac (Jean-Paul Rappeneau) (France/Hungry)/The Witches (Nicolas Roeg) (England/USA)/The Godfather Part III (F.Coppola) (USA)/Dreams (Kurosawa) (Japan)/Nikita (Luc Besson) (France)/Pretty Woman (Garry Marshall) (USA)/Edward Scissorhands (Tim Burton) (USA)/Revenge (Tony Scott) (USA)/Ghost (Jerry Zucker) (USA)/Havana (Sydney Pollack) (USA)/Hamlet (Franco Zeffirelli) (England/USA)/Reversal of Fortune (Barbet Schroeder) (USA)/Awakenings (Penny Marshall) (USA)/Home Alone (Chris Columus) (USA)/Henry & June (Philip Kaufman) (USA)/Hamoun (Dariush Mehrjui) (Iran)
1991:The silence of the Lambs (Jonathan Demme) (USA)/Mediterraneo (Gabriele Salvatores) (Italy)/Raise the Red Lantern (Zhang Yimou) (China)/Delicatessen (Jean-Pierre Jeunet/Marc Caro) (France)/Barton Fink (Joel Coen) (USA)/Europa (Lars von Trier) (Denmark)/The commitments (Alan Parker)(Ireland/England/USA)/Thelma & Louise (Ridley Scott) (USA)/Shadows and Fog (W.Allen) (USA)/High Hills (Pedro Alomdovar) (Spain)/JFK (Oliver Stone) (USA)/The Adjuster (Atom Egoyan) (Canada)/The Doors (Oliver Stone) (USA)/Defending your life (Albert Brooks) (USA)/Fried Green Tomatoes (Jon Avnet) (USA)/Bugsy (Barry Levinson) (USA)/Cape Fear (Martin Scorsese) (USA)/In the Alleys of Love (Khosrow Sinai) (Iran)/Naked Lunch (David Cronenberg) (Canada/England)
1992:Unforgiven (Clint Eastwood)(USA)/Indochine (Regie Wargnier) (France)/A few good men (Rob Reiner) (USA)/The best intentions (Bille August) (Sweden)/A River runs through it (Robert Redford) (USA)/Leolo (Jean-Calude Lauzon) (Canada)/The crying game (Neil Jordan) (USA)/Damage (Louis Malle) (France/England) /The Player (Robert Altman) (USA)/Reservoir Dogs (Quentin Tarantino)(USA)/Lessons of darkness (Werner Herzog) (Germany)/The Quince tree sun (Victor Erice) (Spain)/Bob Roberts (Tim Robins) (USA)/Basic instinct (Paul Verhoeven) (USA)/Batman returns (Tim Burton) (USA)/Life and nothing more (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/Once Upon a Time, Cinema (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Hard Boiled (John Woo) (China)/Shining through (David Seltzer) (USA/England)/Final Analysis (Phil Jaonu) (USA)/A Stranger among us (Sydney Lumet) (USA)/Single white female (Barbet Schroder) (USA)/The last of the Mohicans (Michael Mann) (USA)/Glengarry Glen Ross (James Foley) (USA)/Hero (Stephen Frears) (USA)/Bram Stoker’s Dracula (F.Coppola) (USA)/Malcolm X (Spike Lee) (USA)/Bad Lieutenant (Abel Ferrara) (USA)/Toys (Barry Levinson) (USA)/The Lover (Jean-Jacques Annaud) (France)/Scent of a woman (Martin Brest) (USA)/Hoffa (Danny DeVito) (USA)/Belle époque (Fernando Terueba) (Spain)/Strictly Ballroom (Baz Luhrmann) (Australia)
1993:Schindler’s list (Spielberg) (USA)/Philadelphia (Jonathan Demme) (USA)/Farewell my concubine (Chen Kaig) (China)/The scent of green papaya (Tran Anh Hung) (Vietnam/France)/Falling down (Joel Schumacher) (USA)/What’s eating Gilbert Grape (Lasse Hallstrom) (USA)/D’Est (From the East) (Chantal Akerman) (Russia/Poland/Germany)/ Three Colors: Blue (Krzysztof Kieslowski) (Poland/Frnace/Switzerland)/Searching for Bobby Fischer (Steven Zailian) (USA) /Jurassic Park (Spielberg) (USA)/Benny’s video (Michael Haneke) (Austria/Switzerland) /Mrs. Doubtfire (Chris Columbus) (USA)/The Fugitive (Andrew Davis) (USA)/The Firm (Sydney Pollack) (USA) /Indecent Proposal (Adrian Lyne) (USA)/The Pelican Brief (Alan J. Pakula) (USA) /The Age of Innocence (Scorsese) (USA) /The Piano (Jane Campion) (New Zealand) /A Bronx Tale (Robert De Niro) (USA)/Shadowlands (Richard Attenborough) (England)/ Carlito’s Way (Brian De Palma) (USA)/A Perfect World (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/Iron Monkey (Yuen Wo-ping) (China)/In the name of the father (Ireland/England)/ Manhattan Murder Mystery (W.Allen) (USA)
1994:Pulp Fiction (Qunetin Tarantino) (USA)/Burnt by the sun (Nikita Mikhalkov)/Forest Gump (Robert Zemeckis) (USA)/Eat, drink, man, woman (Ang Lee) (Taiwan)/Satantango (Bela Tarr) (Hungry)/Strawberry and chocolate (Tomas Gutierrez) (Cuba/Mexico)/Il Postino (Michael Radford/Massimo Troisi) (Italy)/Chungking express (Wong Kar-Wai) (China)/Shawshank Redemption (Frank Darabont)/Ed Wood (Tim Burton) (USA)/Three colors: White (Krzysztof Kieslowski) (France/Poland/Switzerland)/Three Colors: Red (Krzysztof Kieslowski) (France/Poland/Switzerland)/Leon: The Professional (Luc Besson) (France)/Hoop dreams (Steve James)/The Lion King (Roger Allers/Rob Minkoff) (USA)/Crumb (Terry Zwigoff) (USA)/Four weddings and a funeral (Mike Newell) (England)/Through the Olive trees (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/The Mask (Chuck Russel) (USA)/Speed (Jan de Bont) (USA)/Natural Born Killers (Oliver Stone) (USA)/Disclosure (Barry Levinson) (USA)/Bullets over Broadway (W.Allen) (USA)/Immortal beloved (Bernard Rose) (England/USA)
1995:Seven (David Fincher) (USA)/Leaving Las Vegas (Mike Figgis) (USA)/Apollo 13 (Ron Howard) (USA)/12 Monkeys (Terry Giliam) (USA) /Sense and sensibility (Ang Lee) (USA)/Toy story (John Lasseter) (USA)/Braveheart (Mel Gibson) (USA)/Antonia’s line (Marleen Gorris) (The Netherland)/Underground (Emir Kusturica) (Serbia/Bulgaria/France)/Ulysses’ gaze (Theo Angelopoulos) (Greece) /Dead Man Walking (Tim Robbins) (USA)/Before Sunrise (Richard Linklater) (USA)/The White Balloon (Jafar Panahi)(Iran) /Mighty Aphrodite (W.Allen) (USA)/Hello Cinema (Mohsen Makhmalbaf)(Iran)/Babe (Chris Noonan) (USA)/Casino (Scorsese) (USA)/The usual suspects (Bryan Singer) (USA)/Rob Roy (Michael Caton-Jones) (USA)/The Bridges of Madsion County (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/Sabrina (Sydnye Pollack) (USA)/Nixon (Oliver Stone) (USA) /Jade (William Friedkin) (USA)/To die for (Gus Van Sant) (USA)/Canadian Bacon (Michael Moore) (USA)/Les Miserables (Claude Lelouch) (France)/Don Juan DeMarco (Jeremy Leven) (USA)
1996:The English Patient (Anthony Minghella) (USA)/Fargo (Joel Coen) (USA/England)/Secret and Lies (Mike Leigh) (England/France)/Shine (Scott Hicks) (Australia)/Kolya (Jan Sverak) (Czech Republic)/Lone Star (John Sayles) (USA)/Breaking the waves (Lars von Trier) (Denmark/Englnad)/Mission impossible (Brian De Palma) (USA)/Kansas City (Robert Altman) (USA)/Gabbeh (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/The Island of Dr. Moreau (John Frankenheimer) (USA) /Michael Collins (Neil Jordan)(USA)/Sleepers (Barry Levinson) (USA)/Sling Blade (Billy Bob Thornton) (USA)/Jack (F.Coppola) (USA)/The Birdcage (Mike Nichols) (USA)
1997:Titanic (James Cameron) (USA)/Good will hunting (Gus Van Sant) (USA)/Midnight in the garden of good and evil (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/Character (Karakter) (Mike van Diem) (Netherland/Belgium)/ Mad City (Costa Gavras) (USA/Fireworks (Hana-bi) (Takeshi Kitano) (Japan)/The Disappearance of Garcia Lorca (Death in Granada) (Marcos Zurinaga) (Spain)/Taste of Cherry (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/As good as it gets (James Brooks) (USA)/The Sweet Hereafter (Atom Egoyan) (Canada)/Children of Heaven (Majid Majidi) (Iran)/A,B,C…Manhattan (Amir Naderi)(Iran/USA)/L.A. Confidential (Curtis Hanson) (USA)/Mimic (Guillermo del Toro) (USA)/The Fifth Element (Luc Besson) (France)/Jackie Brown ((Tarantino) (USA)/Amistad (Spielberg) (USA)/Donnie Brasco (Mike Newell) (USA)/The Lost World: Jurassic Park (Spielberg) (USA)/4 Little girls (Spike Lee) (USA)/Life is beautiful (Roberto Benigni) (Italy)/The Mirror (Jafar Panahi) (Iran) /The Rainmaker (F.Coppola) (USA)/U Turn (Oliver Stone) (USA)/Contact (Zemeckis) (USA)/Live Flesh (Almodovar) (Spain/France)/Night falls on Manhattan (Sydney Lumet) (USA)/Affliction (Paul Schrader)(USA)/The Boxer (Jim Sheridan) (Ireland)
1998:Saving private Ryan (Spielberg) (USA)/Central Station (Walter Salles) (Brazil)/Ringu (Hideo Nakata) (Japan)/Run Lola Run (Tom Tykwer) (Germany)/The celebration (Festen) (Thomas Vinterberg) (Denmark)/Histoire du cinema (Jean-Luc Godard) (France)/The Legend of 1900 (Giuseppe Tornatore) (Italy)/The Apple (Samira Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Armageddon (Michael Bay) (USA)/Shakespeare in Love (John Madden)/American History X (Tony Kaye) (USA)/The Pear Tree (Dariush Mehrjui) (Iran)/The Truman Show (Peter Weir) (USA)/The Idiots (Idioterne) (Lars von Trier) (Denmark)/Elizabeth (Shekhar Kapur)(England)/The Big Lebowski (Joel and Ethan Coen) (USA)/To be or not to be (Kianoush Ayari) (Iran)/Gods and Monsters (Bill Condon) (England/USA)/Primary Colors (Mike Nichols) (USA)/Ronin (John Frankenheimer) (USA)/Meet Joe Black (Martin Brest) (USA)/The Thin Red Line (Terrence Malick) (USA)/The Red Violin (Francois Girard) (Canada/Italy/England)
1999:The Matrix (The Wachowskis) (USA)/The sixth sense (M. Night Shyamalan) (USA)/All about my mother (Pedro Almodovar) (Spain)/American Beauty (Sam Mendes) (USA)/Being John Malkovich (Spike Jonze) (USA)/Rosetta (Jean-Pierre & Luc Dardenne) (France)/Angela’s ashes (Alan Parker) (Ireland/England/USA)/Buena Vista Social Club (Wim Wenders) (Germany/USA/France/Cuba)/The Green Mile (Frank Darabont) (USA)/Second skin (Gerardo Vera) (Spain)/The Cider House Rules (Lasse Hallstrom) (USA)/Girl, Interrupted (James Mangold) (USA)/Peppermint candy (Lee Chang-dong) (South Korea)x/The Talented Mr. Ripley (Anthony Minghella) (USA)/Audition (Takashi Miike) (Japan)//Cookie’s Fortune (Robert Altman) (USA)/Yana’s Friends (Arik Kaplun) (Israel)/Bringing out the dead (Scorsese) (USA)/Mr. Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. (Errol Morris) (USA)/Solomon & Gaenor (Paul Morrison) (England)/Audition (Takashi Miike) (Japan)/Toy Story 2 (John Lasseter) (USA)/The Wind will carry us (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/The Hurricane (Norman Jewison)(USA)/Magnolia (Paul Thomas Anderson) (USA)/Himalaya (Eric Valli) (Nepal)/Music of the Heart (Was Craven) (USA)/Felicia Journey (Atom Egoyan) (Canada)x/Under the Sun (Colin Nutley) (Sweden)/The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc (Luc Besson) (France)/Man on the Moon (Milos Forman) (USA)/Anna and the King (Andy Tennat) (USA)/The Virgin Suicides (Sofia Coppola) (USA)/Celebrity (W.Allen) (USA) 1998/East/West (Regis Wargnier)(France/Bulgaria/Russia/Spain/Ukraine)/Random Hearts (Sydney Pollack) (USA)/Liberty Heights (Barry Levinson) (USA)/The Insider (Michael Mann) (USA)/Boys don’t Cry (Kimberly Peirce) (USA)/Analyze this (Harold Ramis) (USA)/Eyes Wide Shut (Kubrick)(England/USA)/Any Given Sunday (Oliver Stone) (USA)/Snow falling on cedars (Scott Hicks) (USA)
2000: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (Ang Lee)(China/Taiwan)/ Gladiator (Ridley Scott) (USA)/Chocolat (Lasse Hallstrom) (USA/Englnd)/Djomeh (Friday) (Hassan Yektabakhsh) (Iran)/Traffic (Steven Soderbergh) (USA)/In the mood for love (Wong Kar-wai) (China)/Amores perros (1/3) (Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu) (Mexico)/The house of mirth (Terence Davies) (England/Germany/USA)/Blackboards (Samira Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Werckmeister harmonies (Bela Tarr) (Hungry)/Finding Forester (Gus Van Sant) (USA)/A time for drunken horses (Bahman Ghobadi) (Iran)/The Gleaners and I (Agnes Varda) (France)/Pay it Forward (Mimi Leder) (USA)/The Taste of Others (Agnes Jaoui) (France)/The Circle (Jafar Panahi) (Iran)/Battle Royale (Kinji Fukasaku) (Japan)/Almost Famous (Cameron Crowe) (USA)/Malena (Giuseppe Tornatore) (Italy)/Cast Away (Robert Zemeckis) (USA)/Billy Elliot (Stephen Daldry) (England)/O Brother where art thou? (Joel Coen) (USA) (England/France)/The Legend of Bagger Vance (Robert Redford) (USA)/Wonder Boys (Curtis Hanson) (USA)/Pollock (Ed Harris) (USA)/All the Pretty Horses (Billy Bob Thornton) (USA)
2001:Spirited away (Hayao Miyazaki) (Japan)/A beautiful mind (Ron Howard) (USA)/Mulholland Dr. (David Lynch) (USA)/The Lord of the rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (Peter Jackson) (USA)/Baran (Majid Majidi) (Iran)/Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (Chris Columbus) (USA)/Black Hawk down (Ridley Scott) (USA) /La Cienaga (The Swamp)(Lucrecia Martel)(Argentina/Spain/France)/Ocean’s Eleven (Steven Soderbergh) (USA)/Millennium Mambo (Hou Hsiao-hsien) (Taiwan)/Amelie (Jean-Pierre Jeunet)/ (France/Germany)/ Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner (Zacharias Kunuk) (Canada)/Pearl Harbor (Michael Bay) (USA)/A.I. Artificial Intelligence (Spielberg) (USA)/Hannibal (Ridley Scott) (USA)/Moulin Rouge (Baz Luhrmann)/Ali (Michael Mann) (USA)/I am Sam (Jessie Nelson) (USA)/The Piano teacher (Michael Haneke) (Frnace/Austria/Germany)/Y TuMama Tambien (Alfonso Curaon) (Mexico)/Gosford Park (Robert Altman) (USA)/Kandahar (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Enemy at the Gates (Jean-Jacques Annaud) (US/France/Germany)/In Praise of Love (Godard) (France)
2002:The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (Peter Jackson) (USA)/Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (Chris Columbus) (England/USA)/Spider Man (Sam Raimi) (USA)/Road to Perdition (Sam Mendes) (USA)/Pinocchio (Roberto Benigni) (Italy)/Ice Age (Chris Wedge/Carlos Saldanha) (USA)/Catch me if you can (Spielberg)/Gangs of New York (Scorsese) (USA) /The Bourne identity (Doug Liman) (USA)/My Big Fat Greek Wedding (Joel Zwick)/Minority Report (Spielberg)(USA)/Bowling for Columbine (Michael Moore) (USA)/Frida (Julie Taymor) ((USA)/The Cuckoo (Kukushka) (Aleksandr Rogozhkin) (Russia)/The Magdalene Sisters (Peter Mullan) (England/Ireland)/ Bloody Sunday (Paul Greengrass( (England/Ireland)/Talk to her (Pedro Almodovar) (Spain)/City of God (Fernando Meirelles/Katia Lund) (Brazil)/Hero (Zhang Yimou) (China)/About Schmidt (Alexander Payne) (USA)/The pianist (Polanski) (France/Germany/Poland/England)/ Confession of a dangerous mind (George Clooney) (USA)/Chicago (Rob Marshal) (USA)/The Hours (Stephen Daldry) (USA)/Solaris (Steven Soderbergh) (USA)/Adaptation (Spike Jonze) (USA)/Nowhere in Africa (Caroline Link) (USA)/The Crime of Padre Amaro (Carlos Carrera) (Mexico/Spain)/Secret Ballot (Babak Payami) (Iran)/Bus 174 (Jose Padilha) (Brazil)/Marooned in Iraq (Bahman Ghobadi) (Iran)/In my skin (Marina de Van) (France) /Russian Ark (Alexander Sokurov) (Russia)/ The Day I became a Woman (Marzieh Meshkini) (Iran)/Hukkle (Gyorgy Palfi) (Hungry)/Ten (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)
2003: Mystic river (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (Gore Verbinski) (USA)/Finding Nemo (Andrew Stanton) (USA)/Crimson Gold (Jafar Panahi) (Iran)/Goodbye Lenin (Wolfgang Becker) (Germany)/The last Samurai (Edward Zwick) (USA)/At Five in the afternoon (Samira Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/The fog of war (Errol Morris) (USA) /Five (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/21 Grams (1/3) (Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu) (Mexico)/The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (Peter Jackson) (USA)/Kill Bill (Quentin Tarantino) (USA)/Dogville (Lars von Trier)(Denmark/England/Sweden/Frnace…)/The Barbarian Invasions (Denys Arcand) (Canada)/Saraband (Bergman) (Sweden/Italy/Germany/Denmark/Austria)/Lost in translation (Sofia Coppola) (USA)/Oldboy (Park Chan-wook) (S.Korea) /Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (Peter Weir) (USA)/Seabiscuit (Garry Ross) (USA)/Dancing in the dust (Asghar Farhadi) (Iran)/Cold Mountain (Anthony Minghella) (USA)
2004: The passion of the Christ (Mel Gibson) (USA)/Harry Potter and the Prisoners of Azkaban (Alfonso Cuaron) (England/USA)/Hotel Rwanda (Terry George) (South Africa/Italy)/Million dollar baby (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/The Aviator (Scorsese) (USA)/Turtles can fly (Bahman Ghobadi) (Iran) /Farenheit 9/11 (Michael Moore) (USA)/Kung Fu Hustle (Stephen Chow) (Hong Kong/China) /2046 (Wong Kar-wai) (Hong Kong)/Cama Adentro (Jorge Gaggero) (Argentina/Spain)/Khabe-e Talkh (The bitter sleep) (Mohsen Amiryoussefi) (Iran) /The beautiful city (Asghar Farhadi) (Iran)/Sideways (Alexander Payne) (USA)/Vera Drake (Mike Leigh) (England)/Maria Full of Grace (Joshua Marston) (Colombia/USA) /The Sea Inside (Alejandro Amenabar) (Spain)/Ray (Taylor Hackford) (USA)/Being Julia (Istvan Szabo) (Hungry/Canada/USA)/The Motorcycle Diaries (Walter Salles) (Argentina/Brazil/Chile/Peru)/Head-On (Faith Akin) (Germany/Turkey)/Kill Bill: Volume 2 (Quentin Tarantino) (USA) /Man on Fire (Tony Scott) (USA)/Troy (Wolfgang Peterson) (USA/England)/The Terminal (Spielberg) (USA)/The Notebook (Nick Cassavetes)(USA/Canada)/Before Sunset (Richard Linklater) (USA) /Alexander (Oliver Stone) (USA)
2005:Crash (Paul Haggis) (USA)/Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (Mike Newell) (England/USA)/Tsotsi (Gavin Hood) (South Africa/England)/Sex & Philosophy (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/The Interpreter (Sydney Pollack) (USA) /L’enfent (Jean-Pierre & Luc Dardenne) (Belgium)/Cache’ (Michael Haneke) (France/Austria)/Walk the Line (James Mangold) (USA)/Grizzly man (Werner Herzog) (USA)/Iron Island (Mohamad Rasoulof) (Iran)/Tickets (Olmi/Kiarostmai/K.Loach)/Man push cart (Ramin Bahrani) (Iran) /C.R.A.Z.Y (Jean-Marc Vallee) (Canada)/The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the witch and the Wardrobe (Andrew Adamson) (England/USA)/War of the Worlds (Spielberg) (USA) /Brokeback Mountain (Ang Lee) (USA)/Capote (Bennett Miller) (USA/Canada)/King Kong (Peter Jackson) (USA) /Cinderella Man (Ron Howard) (USA)/The Constant Gardner (Fernando Meirelles) (England/Germany/USA)/Memories of a Geisha (Rob Marshal) (USA)/Match Point (Woody Allen) (USA)/A History of Violence (David Cronenberg)/Good Night and Good Luck /Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (Tim Robins) (USA/England)/Munich (Spielberg) (USA)
2006: Pan’s Labyrinth (Guillermo del Toro) (Mexico/Spain)/Letters from Iwo Jima (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest (Gore Verbinski) (USA)/Offside (Jafar Panahi) (Iran)/The Departed (Scorsese) (USA)/The lives of others (Florian Henckel) (Germany)/Babel (1/3) (Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu) (Mexico)/The Good Shepherd (Robert De Niro) (USA)/Black book (Paul Verhoeven) (Netheralnd/Germany)/The Queen (Stephen Frears) (England)/Half Moon (Bahman Ghobadi) (Iran)/Volver (Pedro Almodovar) (Spain)/The Fall (Tarsem Singh) (India/USA)/The Davinci Code (Ron Howard) (USA)/Deliver Us from Evil (Amy J. Berg) (USA)/The Last King of Scotland (Kevin Macdonald) (England/Germany)/Fireworks Wednesday (Asghar Farhadi) (Iran) /Happy Feet (George Miller) (USA)/A Good Year (Ridley Scott) (USA)/Children of Men (Alfonso Cuaron) (England/USA)/Akeelah and the Bee (Doug Atchison) (USA)/Blood Diamond (Edward Zwick) (USA/Germany)/The Wind that shakes the Barely (Ken Loach) (Ireland/England/Italy/Germany)/Climates (Nuri Bilge Ceylan) (Turkey)/Bella (Alejandro Gomez) (USA)/Ten Canoes (Ralph de Heer/Peter Djigirr) (Australia)The Host (Bong Joon-ho) (S.Korea)
2007:The counterfeiters (Stefan Ruzowitzky) (Austria/Germany)/Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (David Yates) (England/USA)/My Winnipeg (Guy Maddin) (Canada)/No country for old men (Joel & Ethan Coen) (USA) /The diving bell and the butterfly (Julian Schabel) (France)/Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End (Gore Verbinski) (USA)/Buddha collapsed out of shame (Hana Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Flight of the Red Balloon (Hou Hsiao-hsien) (Taiwan/France)/Taxi to the Dark Side (Alex Gibney) (USA)/Chop Shop (Ramin Bahrani) (Iran)/Persepolis (Marjan Satrapi/Vincent Paronnaud) (Iran/France)/Atonement (Joe Wright) (England/France/USA)/[Rec](Jaume Balaguero/Paco Plaza) (Spain)/Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of the Fleet Street (Tim Burton) (England/USA)/Michael Clayton (Tony Gilroy) (USA)/La Vie en Rose (Olivier Dahan) (France)/American Gangster (Ridley Scott) (USA)/City of Men (Paulo Morelli) (Brazil)/There will be Blood (Paul Thomas Anderson) (USA)
2008: The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian (Andrew Adamson) (England/USA)/Milk (Gus Van Sant) (USA)/Revolutionary Road (Sam Mendes) (USA/England)/The Curious Case of Benjamine Button (David Fincher)/Shirin (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/The Reader (Stephen Daldry) (Germany/USA)/Cassandra’s Dream (Woody Allen) (USA)/I’ve loved you so long (Philippe Claudel) (France/Canada)/Frost/Nixon (Ron Howard) (USA/England)/Che (Steven Soderbergh) (Spain/Germany/France/USA)/The headless woman (Lucercia Martel) (Argentina/Spain)/The Baader Meinhof Complex (Uli Edel) (Germany/France)/Afghan Star (Havana Marking) (England)/Two Legged Horse (Samira Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Let the right one in (Tomas Alfredson) (Sweden)/Slumdog Millionaire (Danny Boyle) (England)/Waltz with Bashir (Ari Folman) (Israel)/Gran Torino (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/Tambourine (Asghar Farhadi) (Iran)/The Good, the Bad, the Weird (Kim Jee-woon) (S.Korea)/Vicky Cristina Barcelona (Woody Allen) (Spain/USA)/W.(Oliver Stone) (USA)/Sita Sings the Blues (Nina Paley) (USA)/Still Walking (Hirokazu Kore-eda) (Japan)/Burn after reading (Joel & Ethan Coen) (USA/England)/Pray the Devil Back to Hell (Gini Reticker) (USA)/Man on Wire (James Marsh) (England)/The Order of Myths (Margaret Brown) (USA)/The Wrestler (Darren Aronofsky) (USA)/Departures (Yojiro Takita) (Japan)/The Dark Knight (Christopher Nolan) (USA/England)/Taken (Pierre Morel) (France)/The Visitor (Tom McCarthy) (USA)/Mamma Mia (Phyllidia Lloyd) (England/Germany/USA)/The Hurt Locker (Kathryn Bigelow) (USA)
2009: Avatar (James Cameron) (USA)/The secret in their eyes (Juan Jose Campanella) (Argentina/Spain)/Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (David Yates) (England/USA)/Harry Brown (Daniel Barber) (England)/Angles and Demons (Ron Howard) (USA)/Green Days (Hana Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Crazy Heart (Scott Cooper) (USA)/The White Ribbon (Michael Haneke) (Germany)/Mr.Nobody (Jaco Can Dormael) (Belgium/Canada/France)/Twenty (Abdolreza Khani) (Iran)/Nine (Rob Marshal) (USA/Italy)/The Blind Side (John Lee Hancock) (USA)/Mother (Bong Joon-ho) (S.Korea)/Amelia (Mira Nair) (Canada/USA)/Dogtooth (Yorgos Lanthimos) (Greece)/Inglorious Basterds (Quentin Tarantino) (USA/Germany)/Last Train Home (Lixin Fan) (Canada)/Invictus (Clint Eastwood) (USA/South Africa)/Up (Peter Docter) (USA)/No one knows about Persian Cats (Bahman Ghobadi) (Iran)/The Lovely Bones (Peter Jackson) (USA/England/New Zealand)/The Last Station (Michael Hoffman) (Russia/Germany)/A Single Man (Tom Ford) (USA)/Atashkar (Fire Keeper) (Mohsen Amiryoussefi) (Iran)/My son, my son what have you done? (Werner Herzog) (USA/Germany)/The White Meadows (Mohamad Rasoulof) (Iran)/Julie & Julia (Nora Ephron) (USA)/Broken Embraces (Pedro Almodovar) (Spain)/A Prophet (Jacques Audiard) (France)/The Girl with a Dragon Tattoo (Niels Arden Oplev) (Sweden)/About Elly (Asghar Farhadi) (Iran)
2010: 127 hours (Danny Boyle) (England/USA)/Certified Copy (Abbas Kiarostami)/Black Swan (Darren Aronofsky) (USA)/Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows-Part 1 (David Yates) (England/USA)/Uncle Boonmee who can recall his past lives (Apichatpong Weerasethakul) (Thailand)/Social Network (David Fincher) (USA)/Incendies (Denis Villeneuve) (Canada)/Poetry (Lee Chang-dong) (S.Korea)/Even the rain (Iciar Bollain) (Spain/Mexico/France)/Inception (Christopher Nolan) (USA)/Nostalgia for the light (Patricia Guzman) (Chile/France/Germany/Spain)/Wall Street: Money never sleeps (Oliver Stone) (USA) /Everyday Sunshine: The Story of Fishbone (Lev Anderson & Chris Metzler) (USA)/True Grit (Joel & Ethan Coen) (USA) /Shutter Island (Scorsese) (USA)/Waste Land (Lucy Walker/Joao Jardin/Karen Harley) (Brazil/England)/Toy Story 3 (Lee Unkrich) (USA) /Alice in Wonderland (Tim Burton) (USA)/White Lion (Michael Swan) (USA)/The Kids are alright (Lisa Cholodenko) (USA) /The King’s Speech (Tom Hooper) (England/Australia)/The Fighter (David O. Russell) (USA) /In a Better World (Susanne Bier) (Denmark)/Rabbit Hole (John Cameron Mitchell) (USA)/You will meet tall dark stranger (W. Allen) (USA)
2011: Midnight in Paris (Woody Allen) (USA)/Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows-Part 2 (David Yates) (England/USA)/War Horse (Spielberg) (USA)/Pirates of the Caribbean: On Strager Tides (Rob Marshall)(USA)/Circumstance (Maryam Keshavarz) (Iran)/France/USA)/The Tree of Life (Terrence Malick) (USA)/The Skin I live in (Pedro Almodovar) (Spain) /Goodbye first love (Mia Hansen-Love)(France/Germany)/A Separation (Asghar Farhadi) (Iran)/The Adjustment Bureau (George Nolfi) (USA) /Samsara (Ron Fricke) (USA)/This is not a Film (Jafar Panahi/Mojtaba Mirtahmasb) (Iran)/Sholem Aleichem: Laughing in the Darkness (Joseph Dorman) (USA)/Chicken with Plums (Marjan Satrapi/Vincent Paronnaud) (France/Germany/Belgium)/The Artist (Michel Hazanavicius) (France)/The Descendants (Alexander Payen) (USA)/Goodbye (Be Omid-e Didar) (Mohamad Rasoulof) (Iran)/Hugo (Scorsese) (France/England/USA)/The Iron Lady (Phyiilida Lloyd) (English/France)/Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (Tomas Alfredson)(England/France/Germany)/The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel (John Madden) (England)
2012: Life of Pi (Ang Lee) (USA/England/Canada/Australia/Taiwan)/Amour (Michael Haneke) (France/Austria/Germany)/Wadjda (Haifaa Al-Mansor) (Saudi Arabia)/Like someone in Love (Abbas Kiarostami) (Iran)/Holy Motors (Leos Carax) (France/Germany)/Post Tenebras Lux (Light after darkness) (Carlos Reygadas) (Mexico/France/Netherland)/Rhino Season (Bahman Ghobadi) (Iran)/The act of killing (Joshua Oppenheimer) (Denmark/Norway)/The Waiting Room (Peter Nicks) (USA)/More Than Honey (Markus Inhoof) (Switzerland)/The Gardner (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/Stories We Tell (Sarah Polley) (Canada) /Argo (Ben Affleck) (USA)/Lincoln (Spielberg) (USA)/Zero Dark Thirty (Kathryn Bigelow) (USA)/Silver Linings Playbook (David O. Russell) (USA)/Django unchained (Tarantino) (USA)/To Rome with Love (W.Allen) (USA)
2013: The Wolf of Wall street (Scorsese) (USA)/The Great Beauty (Paolo Sorrentino) (Italy)/Ida (Powel Pawlikowski) (Poland/Denmark/France)/Closed Curtain (Jafar Panahi/Kambuzia Partovi) (Iran)/The Tale of the Princess Kaguya (Isao Takahata) (Japan)/The Past (Asghar Farhadi) (France/Italy/Iran)/Ilo Ilo (Anthony Chen) (Singapore)/The Square (Jehane Noujaim) (Egypt/USA)/Gravity (Alfonso Cuaron) (England/USA)/Fish & Cat (Shahram Mokri) (Iran)/12 Years Slave (Steve McQueen) (USA/England)/At any price (Ramin Bahrani) (Iran)/American Hustle (David O.Russell) (USA)/Blue Jasmine (W.Allen) (USA)/Her (Spike Jones) (USA)/All is lost (J.C.Chandor) (Canada/USA)/Blue is the warmest colour (Abdellattif Kechiche) (France)/Third Person (Paul Haggis) (England/USA/Germany/Belgium)/Rush (Ron Howard) (England/Germany/USA)/JOBS (Joshua Michael Stern) (USA)/Belle (Amma Asante) (England)/Fading Gigolo (W.Allen) (USA)
2014: American Sniper (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/The theory of everything (James Marsh) (England/USA)/Whiplash (Damien Chazelle) (USA)/The President (Mohsen Makhmalbaf) (Iran)/We Are Many (Amir Amirani) (England)/Eden (Mia Hansen-Love) (France)/Court (Chaitanya Tamhane) (India)/Tales of the Grim Sleeper (Nick Broomfiled) (England/USA)/A girl walks home alone at night (Ana Lily Amirpour) (Iran/USA)/Seymour: An Introduction (Ethan Hawke) (USA)/Gett: The Trial of Viviane Amsalem (Ronit & Shlomi Elkabetz) (Israel/Germany/France)/Nas: Time Is Illmatic (One9) (USA)/Interstellar (Christopher Nolan) (USA)/Boyhood (Richard Linklater) (USA)/The Grand Budapest Hotel (Wes Anderson) (USA/Germany)/Birdman (Alejandro Inarritu) (USA)/Still Alice (Richard Glatzer/Wash Westmorelan) (USA)/Big Eyes (Tim Burton) (USA)/The Imitation Game (Morten Tyldum) (USA) /Leviathan (Andrey Zyvagintsev) (Russia)/Force Majeure (Ruben Ostlund) (France/Norway/Sweden)/Glen Campbell: I’ll Be Me (James Keach) (USA)/I origins (Mike Cahil) (USA)/Jersey Boys (Clint Eastwood) (USA)/Lucy (Luc Besson) (France)/The Voices (Marjan Satrapi) (USA/Germany)/Magic in the Moonlight (W.Allen) (USA/France)
The second documentary on this list of the greatest films of all time is the depiction of the story of the largest demonstration in human’s history in one day on February 15, 2003 across the globe against the American invasion of Iraq. The film rightly opens with the last lines of the poem of “Masque of Anarchy” by the British poet, “Percy Bysshe Shelley” written on the “Peterloo Massacre” in Manchester England in 1819, when 60,000 to 80,000 peaceful demonstrators demanding the reform of parliament were massacred by the British cavalry.
“…Rise, like lions after slumber
In unvanquishable number!
Shake your chains to earth like dew
Which in sleep had fallen on you:
Ye are many—they are few” Masque of Anarchy/ Percy Bysshe Shelley
The film opens first on the protest demonstration in London, England where over one million English people demanded the abortion of the plan invading Iraq and asked for peace. Then the films before showing the film’s credit, browses briefly across the globe and shows a few other similar demonstrations. Afterwards the September 11 of 2001 and the attack on the New York City’s twin towers that prompted George W. Bush to announce the war against Iraq is briefly shown. Then a pro-peace group all around the world organize a “Stop the War Coalition” that leads to the February 15, 2003 demonstration. There are interviews with prominent figures such as Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, the former chief of staff of US secretary of State, Colin Powell who confess that Bush administration lied to the American people and the world to connect the 9/11 event to Iraq and they faked finding the evidence of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) in Iraq.
The film also discloses the British Government fake report that backed up Bush administration in confirming the existence of WMD in Iraq that was presented to the parliament by the prime minister, Tony Blair. Tim Goodrich, a US Air Force pilot, participating in the air strike confesses that he soon discovered that he and his fellow pilots are dispatched to a unjust war to kill innocent civilians. He continues his own personal observation of the war plot that while Bush was lying that still they expect a peace solution, US and British forces had already been mobilized and ready for their invasion.
Throughout the film we see some of the 789 cities in 72 countries across the globe’s demonstrations against the invasion of Iraq. We witness huge seas of people of all ages from children, men and women all across Europe, including over half a million in numerous cities in France, over 300 German towns including over 300,000 in Berlin, 100,000 in Dublin, over 650,000 in Rome, 55 cities in Spain, the largest in Barcelona and Madrid with over 1,500,000 and 660,000 people, over half a million in Valencia, 250,000 in Sevile, over 70 cities in Canada despite the temperature below -30 C, Over 100,000 in New York City including the 9/11 families and war veterans, over 200,000 in San Francisco, over 200,000 in Syria, over 200,000 in Sydney and over 200,000 in Melbourne and other Australian cities, and over 800 cities around the world, even in Antarctica. The day after the global demonstrations, New York Times truly wrote that there are two superpowers on earth, the United States of America and the people’s power on the streets.
Dr. Hans Blix the head of UN inspection team reveals as they present their report to the United Nations just before the global demonstration of lack of any evidence of WMD in Iraq. Robin Cook, the British Foreign Secretary on March 18 English parliament vote for the war revealed that there has been no evidence of WMD, so he preferred to resign from the government than being an associate in the war crime. But the prime minister, Tony Blair turns a deaf ear to this and his own people‘s huge demonstration on the streets of many cities, and undermine them by saying coldly in the parliament that if one million people protest against the war, the number still is far less than the people who are being killed by Saddam in Iraq.
Back and forth from the interviews to the demonstrations on the streets around the world, we hear people everywhere demanding stop to the war and not blood shedding for oil in their names. Finally and against the will of all the people across the globe and without acquiring a legal permission from the UN, the invasion of Iraq starts by the American and British coalition unilaterally on March 19, 2003. The cradle of the modern civilization, Mesopotamia or Iraq was aggressively and mercilessly bombarded and the film replays what was shown on every TV at the time around the world. Bodies of murdered innocent men, women and children are seen and a helpless nation are captured overnight. Professor Noam Chomsky in an interview accuses US for committing the biggest crime in humanity, worse than Hiroshima. Adnan Kofi the head of the United Nations declares the invasion as illegal without the permission of the security council and the rest of the nations of the world. Even professor Stephen Hawking voices his protest in tears for the lost lives of Iraqi people.
Wilckerson agrees that Bush along with Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld even himself should be tried as war criminals. Many war veterans of Vietnam and the modern era combatants in Iraq attending the anti-war demonstrations, throw out their medals. In Egypt the demonstration did not stop after February 15, 2003 and after the invasion of Iraq, but continued for months and years and finally led to a revolution in that country and the resignation of its president Hosni Mubarak. The Time Magazine by the end of the year announces “the person of the year” being “The Protestor”. Finally after three years of continuous war and occupation of Iraq, loss of over one million Iraqis, and execution of Saddam, Bush admits of not yet finding any WMD in that country. The novelist, John Le Care in an interview calls the war on Iraq the biggest crime of the century.
After the invasion, the South African leader Nelson Mandela criticizes Bush and the invasion of Iraq, stating that one man cannot make a decision for the world. But the US invasion did not stop with the invasion of Iraq and continued with the plan of attack on Syria. So the global protests and demonstration started all over again including in Britain, and this time finally the British parliament listened to the voice of their people and for the first time in 231 years voted against the war on Syria. This surprisingly forced Obama’s administration to ask the congress for a similar vote that finally resulted in the withdrawal of such invasion.
The largest global peace demonstration of people of the world needed to be recorded and shown again and again to prove that solidarity of the mass has not been lost in the modern era. This importance as a documentary was well written, produced and directed by Amir Amirani. Such a heroic film of the real people on the real streets at a vital time in modern history deserves recognition and being considered as one of the greatest films of all time. With the real people of the world as actors, this documentary is stronger and more mind blowing than any feature film.
In closing remarks “We Are Many” one more time will be redefined based on the following criteria:
- Originality: “We Are Many” is original in its depiction of the largest and first ever global gathering of the people of the world on one single day to protest against the axis of war for their own profits.
- Technicality: The technicality of “We Are Many” is in its action by the real people of the world and the rally organization across the globe and its timely filming so this important event in history would not be lost in memories. Moreover the cinematography and the music score of the film are moving.
- Impact Factor: The impact of “We Are Many” has already been on all the people of the world who attended or did not attend the protest and also on the US and British government to slow down on their invasion plans and finally on Egypt that led to a revolutions and long-sought after freedom from the dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak.
- Survival: “We Are Many” has survived and will into the future as a testimony of the power of the people who could still stop power hungry giants even as strong as military superpowers.
The film is a heroic while beautiful documentary by Patricio Guzman who has been long popular around the world for his documentaries of Chilean struggles for freedom and democracy in 1970’s. His “Battle of Chile” made between 1975 to 1979 in three parts and his documentary “Salvador Allende” in 2004 from his election to the presidency until the coup by the dictator general Pinoche who put Chile into the darkness for decades, has already made Guzman a political spokesman of his country at least on the screen. “Nostalgia for the Light” is another heroic documentary exposing the mass crimes of Pinoche many years before through the search of the families of the victims who were murdered and buried in the Altacama Desert in Chile. This nostalgia happens and shown on the screen by Guzman elegantly under the enormous starry lights of the desert that is known globally and is used as the site for the observation and studies of universe by international astronomers with their huge observatory and telescope.
The parallel between the astronomers searching for the human’s origin and the women who still after decades have not stopped searching for the remains of their murdered beloveds, makes this documentary a masterpiece and a story needed to be told and depicted on the screen. Guzmán narrates the documentary himself that include interviews and commentary from the relatives of the victims, astronomers, archeologists and geologists. The vast Atacama Desert at a high altitude, red and dry like the surface of Mars is also a graveyard of abundant remnants of pre-historic beings like dinasaures, mollusks, and also Indian carvings, mummified remains six different cultures, and even meteorites. All these remote archeological remains are mixed with a near past remains of body parts and pieces of murdered victims of democracy fighters that found by the relatives such as a woman who finds her brother’s foot still in his shoes, a part of his forehead and skull.
A Brown spot of Shame on the face of Earth:
The film opens by showing an image of the Altacama Desert on earth from a space view, asserting it as a small brown patch or dirt spot on the human’s history. In this driest spot on earth, the astronomers from around the world have generated the biggest telescope and gathered to study the universe above and our origin. While the world scientists are in love with the Chilean’s sky to find the human’s origin, a woman who searches the desert for the remains of her murdered beloved, pleas that the telescope for a moment look deep into the earth below.
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On the verge of the fall of cinema as an art medium, “The White Meadows” written, produced and directed by Mohamad Rasoulof from Iran is like resuscitating a dead body and bring it all to life. This fictional surreal, existential and philosophical film poetically probes into the superstitious beliefs and rituals of ordinary people of a few villages on the skirt of a salt lake in Iran. This metaphoric critic of superstitions and religious rigidity still existing at the dawn of the new millennium costs Rasoulof and his editor, Jafar Panahi sentence to 6 years in prison by the Islamic government of Iran, a year after the release of the film. Although a year later in 2011 their appeal concluded in the release of Panahi, but Rasoulof’s sentence was reduced to one year in prison for propaganda against the Islamic regime.
This masterpiece elegantly uncovers bare to the bones the still existing superstitions and religious rigidity at the cost of lives in a remote region of Iran that is an example of many such regions in the world. A perfect look-alike mélange of surrealistic, existentialistic, and poetic works of the masters of cinema such as Bunuel, Bergman, Antonioni and Fellini, Rasoulof stands alone pure and original in a novel piece of cinematic art. With its superb story design, beautiful and poetic cinematography by Ebrahim Ghafori and matched music score by Mohammad Reza Darvishi, the film is what the true believers of cinema as an art medium had been waiting for in a long time.
A Cinematic Rejuvenation:
The film opens in close up on an old man, Rahmat (Hassan Pourshirazi) cleaning a few small glass jars that we learn later to be used for collecting the tears of mourners. Rahmat after walking in a long white landscape of salt field (White Meadows) reaches to his boat docking by the salt lake and paddles for his destination to a village on the other side to collect the tears of the mourners of a recently deceased young woman. After hearing from the locals of the beauty, youth and premature death of the girl and collecting the tears of the mourners, the man loads the corpse on his boat and departs to the other side of the lake to bury her as that salt island has no cemetery.
Midway on the lake, the man opens the sheet over the corpse to confirm the beauty of the girl, but jumps in a shock to see a young alive boy, Nasim (Younes Ghazali) under the sheath. Upset of the trick, he throws the boy in the water but later rescues him as the boy could not swim. Nasim explains that he has replaced himself with the corpse of the girl to get out of the village in the search of his father who had left them years ago. Rahmat finally agrees to take the boy along only if he acts as a mute and deaf, so others not to discover his means. The two arrive to the other side of the lake where in the first scene a blind man picking up the dead bodies of many black birds that have died for drinking the salty water of the lake.
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“The Reader” is Based on the German novel of the same name by Bernhard Schlink, a lawyer, judge and an academic in addition to be a novelist, published in 1995. The film that was produced by Anthony Minghella and Sydney Pollack (who both died before the release of the film) was directed by Stephen Daldry, a playwright with many works in London and Broadway who turned to the feature filmmaking from 2000 with “Billy Elliot” then “The Hours” in 2002 before making “The Reader” in 2008 with the assistance of the screen writer, David Hare.
A Nation’s tale of Redemption:
The film opens in the present time of 1995 when Michael Berg (Ralph Fiennes), a German lawyer by looking through the window of his apartment seeing a rapid transit car that triggers a flashback in his mind riding a tram in Berlin as a teenager in 1958. The 15 year old Michael (David Cross) feels sick after getting off the tram to the point of vomiting by an apartment building. Hanna Schmitz (Kate Winslet), a 36 year old tram conductor returning home from work, passing by him and feeling empathic, taking him upstairs to her flat, cleans him and walk him to his home.
Michael develops fever and has to rest for a few day, but as soon as recovers, he returns to Hanna’s place to thank her with some flowers. While she is getting dressed for work, Michael sneaks up on her that provokes him sexually when his eyes fall on her naked legs putting on her stockings, but as a virgin young boy, he runs out in shame. From then on Hanna will become the subject of the young man’s obsessive attraction and keep following her at work on the tram and at her flat. In one of these visit at her apartment, she asks him to bring her some coals for her heater that makes him all blackened dirty. She will undress him and bathes him like a mother to her boy. This inflames the sexual temptation in both and leads to a long sexual relationship.
While the sexual acts fulfill Michael, Hanna demands more and asking him to read her from his books and novels that he studies in school, each time before sleeping together. Book after book is read and Hanna’s thirst for learning does not seem to end. After returning from a bicycle trip to the country side with Michael, Hanna learns that she has been promoted to a clerical job at the tram’s company that prompts her to vacate and leaves her flat without informing Michael or we as the viewers knowing the reason.
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Based on the memoir of Jean-Dominique Bauby (played by Mathiu Amalric), the editor of the French fashion magazine, Elle, who was paralyzed by a rare massive brain stem stroke, called “Locked-in Syndrome”, the film is a non-conventional biopic. The memoir itself published in 1997 received universal acclaim and in the first day of publication sold 25,000 copies and in a week 150,000 and soon became the number one best seller across Europe. Locked in his own body with a totally intact brain, still capable of thinking, imagining, loving, remembering and still communicating by the blink of eyes, both the memoir by Bauby himself and the film adaptation by Julian Schnable is a human heroism to record such an emotional subjective experience that otherwise could not have been appreciated.
A Locked-in Journey needed to be told:
Taking laborious hours of work between Bauby and a female transcriber, from the publishing company, building the words letter by letter with the blink of his left eye (as his right eye due to dryness had to be stitched) to write his emotions, memories and regrets of a successful and happy life is an extraordinary rarity. The writing of the book took on average about 2 minutes for each word, and about 200,000 blinks in 10 months of working 4 hours a day, but the man dies from pneumonia two days after the successful publication of his book on March 9, 1997. The depiction of such heroic memoir to pass on to the millions of viewers across the globe to appreciate the life that often is taken for granted is another heroism specially when done masterfully on film.
The most part of the film is shown through the eyes and mind of Bauby as if the camera has been placed in his eyes and brain. The film opens in a hospital at Breck-sur-Mer by the sea when Bauby wakes up three weeks after being in coma from his massive stroke. The surrounding is seen blurry from the patient’s view, but gradually clears up with a better vision. The nurses and the doctor are all excited that Bauby has finally come to life, but he is still totally paralyzed and mute, while can see, hear and think. Slowly Bauby realizes that he is trapped in his own physical body, a rare stroke of the brain stem that the doctors called it “Locked-in-syndrome”. We hear Bauby’s thinking and feelings loud, but no one in the hospital can hear him as he is aphasic and cannot speak.
Soon Bauby is helped by a beautiful speech therapist, Henriette (Anne Consigny) who when she comes in the first time with another beautiful physiotherapist, Bauby thinks he has died and is in heaven. Henriette gradually helps Bauby (she calls him Jean-Do as his friends used to call him) to identify the alphabetical letters by blinking eye to make out words for communication with the outside world. Henriette from the start takes an interest in her patient beyond her job and spends more time with Bauby, hoping his recovery and soon to speak. She even gets upset at him when he is hopeless about his progress. While a laborious process, Bauby accepts and cooperates with the therapy and blinking as the only way of reaching out to his surrounding and others, including Celine (Emmanuelle Seigner), his ex-common law and the mother of his three children who often comes visiting him.
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A fairy tale like no others, rooted in the real time and through the eyes and mind of a young girl, Ofelia (Ivana Baquero) who seeks escape from the sad and torturous reality of her life to a fantasy world. The film opens with the scene of her in car travelling with her pregnant mother, Carmen (Ariadna Gil) to the country to stay with the army captain Vidal (Sergi Lopez) of the fascist government of general Franco, the father of their expecting son after the Spanish civil war in 1944. Reading one of the many fairy tales books that she has brought along with her, we hear the fairy tale of the Princess Moanna, whose father is the king of underworld visits the human world, where the sunlight blinds her and wipes out her memory. She becomes mortal but her father believes that one day her spirit will return to the underworld, so he builds labyrinths with an entry portal around her world for her return.
A Fairy Tale for escape from the bitterness of Reality:
With the above fantasy fairy tales as a prompt, the car that Ofelia and her mother are inside followed by a couple of army cars as escorts, stops midway in a woods as her mother is sick with her pregnancy. Walking a few steps in the woods, Ofelia encounters a big flying insect whom she calls a fairy. The insect or the fairy follows her to the house of the captain when they arrive and even at night in her bedroom asking her to follow him. Arriving in a labyrinth, the fairy transforms to a minute half human figure or fauna, who takes her to a bigger faun, half human-half goat like. Ofelia is told by the faun that she is the Princess Maonna of immortal descent but needs to enter their world for a test to determine if she is still intact and her merit has not been corrupted by the earthy life.
Meanwhile the mean fascist captain Vida proves to be a monster who has probably murdered Ofelia’s father as a republic resistant fighter, as he kills with his bare hands an arrested young man for the possession of a rifle and hunting rabbit then shoots his father. Later entering the underground labyrinth, the brave Ofelia now believing to be a princess encounters a giant frog who after testing her bravery and not being frightened of him, vomits a golden key that Ofelia needs to open the portal entry to the underworld with. Meanwhile in the evening at the dinner table where captain has invited his accomplices, we witness a priest among the army officers supporting the Spanish fascist government.
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The best of Leonardo DiCaprio ever, and the best of Martin Scorsese since Taxi Driver, “The Aviator” was like a jackpot winner for the duo, due to its subject story. Based on the life story of Howard Hughes, an American genius, adventurer and the creator of one of the earliest aviation epics on the screen, “Hell’s Angels”, The Aviator brings his memory back. A business giant, record-setting pilot, filmmaker, and philanthropist that founded a huge medical institute for research that as of 2007 was the fourth largest private such organization, Hughes was as vulnerable as any ordinary man. Suffering from a severe OCD that DiCaprio demonstrates it the best on the screen, the film like Hughes’ life in between all the adventures and actions, is humane and touching.
The Aviator: Legends suffer too:
The film opens with Hughes’ childhood when his young mother bathes and warns him about an incident of Cholera epidemic at the time and that he is not safe. Hence sowing the seed of obsession about germs for the rest of his life. Jumping from there to 1927 when the 22 years old Hughes struggles hard to make his own aviation epic film, showing the world his largest airport in the world. Filming his airplanes with his 24 cameras, he needs two more cameras that when asking some Hollywood producers faces their mocks and rejections. Realizing that the movements of the planes in his film are not depicted on the screen well, smart Hughes discovers that he needs clouds in the background to show the actions better. He employs the best meteorologist, professor Fitz (Ian Holm) from UCLA to find him clouds and pays him double of what university paid him.
Forced to close his aviation film project due to its highly cost and not getting anywhere, he does not quit and keeps pushing forward against his business consultant, Noah Dietrich (John C. Reilly) advice and finishes his “Hell’s Angles”. The film is received with a huge accolade in its preview opening in Hollywood against all the odds. A star-studded life filled with relationships with the great stars of the golden age of Hollywood, from Jane Harlow (Gwen Stefani) to Katharine Hepburn (Cate Blanchett) and Ava Gardner (Kate Beckinsale), Hughes and the film is not only about his aviation adventure and filmmaking, but his sexual appetite and romances as well. One of the best example of American ambition, Hughes not only flew his airplanes and set records the first times, he took his lovers like Hepburn on a flight ride at night over Hollywood and LA and let her on the wheel.
A perfectionist in the design and build of his aircrafts, Hughes infuriates his engineers like Glenn “Odie” Odekirk (Matt Ross) when not fulfilling his expectations. Pushing himself and his planes to the limits, in one of his flight speed race test, he breaks the record of the fastest man on the planet in 1935, but at the end he crushes the plane into a farm field. Right after his record breaking air race, while Hepburn tends to his foot injury, Howard shows his other humane and fragile part when he reveals to her that at times he gets some ideas and sees things that are not real. His adventure takes another extreme by being the first man to fly around the globe in four days. One of the first signs of his OCD in the powder room of a reception is when he washes his hands with his personal bar of soap and refuses to hand the towel to a man on a walker who cannot reach it due to his obsession.
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