The Greatest films of all time: 7. The Cranes Are Flying (1957) (Russia)

Introduction:

It took almost 30 years until someone applied some of the multitude of the camera and cinematographic techniques of Dziga Vertov in “Man with a movie camera” into a film with storyline. That one surprisingly came once again from Russia and was Mikhail Kalatozov who masterfully from the start to end used camera, cinematography, hence the powerful visual effects of cinema into a gripping melodrama. “The Cranes Are Flying”, a sweet love story in blooming, withers by the start of invasion of the Nazis to Russia, along with the loss of many other dreams, hopes and lives. The only Soviet film to win the Palme d’Or, the grand prize of the Cannes Film Festival, was written by Victor Rozov, cinematography by Sergey Urusevsky and Mikhail Kalatozov and the music score of Moisey Vaynberg. Unfortunately film itself not as much as the film’s main protagonist, Tatyana Samojlova who played the role of Veronika, the young beautiful broken hearted lover attracted the attention of the western critics and millions of Europeans at the time.

 

An Ultimate Cinematic Experience:

The Georgian Mikhail Kalatozov changed many professions before starting his film career as an actor and later on a cinematographer, before directing films. He first experimented his talent in several documentaries before creating his first major feature, “The Cranes Are Flying”. Then he made a few others, “The unsent letter” (1959), “I Am Cuba” (1964), and “The Red Tent” (1969). Surprisingly and despite its great win at the Cannes’, the film was mostly an accolade even by the critics for its sensitive and heart breaking story, the captivating beauty, gentleness and superb acting of Tatyana Samojlova, and not much for its great filmmaking. The simple free hand-held camera and cinematographic work of Sergey Urusevsky is an exemplary piece of filmmaking.

 

The film opens with un-feared well-fed extreme camera shots from different angles, long and close up like “Man with a movie camera”, but not for a cinematic experiment, but conveying emotions and the love relationship of a young couple, Veronika (Tatyana Samojlova) and Boris (Aleksey Batalov). Right from the start we see how the camera and cinematography used to portray feelings, first joy and happiness, then loss, failure, guilt, disappointment, disgust, confusion, hatred, humanity, belonging, dedication and more. The camera work and cinematography like the tempo and the emotions in the film is uninterrupted all the way from the start to finish, with the acting and music score all complement each other.

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The Greatest films of all time: 47.Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956)(USA)

Introduction:

“Invasion of the Body Snatchers” is a prototype of all the science fiction, horror and thriller films singularly or in combination that came afterwards years later, such as “The Blob”, “Alien”, “Aliens”, “The Fly”, “The Thing”, “Predators” and more. While “The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari” of 1920 has been the prototype of all horror films, “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” is a nice blend of science fiction, horror and even thriller of the modern time style, made 62 years ago. Directed by Don Siegel who created the Dirty Harry series and made Clint Eastwood popular in cop action films other than the spaghetti westerns of Sergio Leone, the film has no super stars, though well enough acted. Shot in a perfect black and white of film noir style, to convey more horror and thrills, while the color of all brands were in fashion already in 1950’s, the cinematography of Ellsworth Fredericks and most of all the music score of Carmen Dragon makes the film a classic so much that still horrifies and thrills today’s audience.

 

The story that was adapted from Jack Finney’s science fiction novel of 1954, “The Body Snatchers”, by Daniel Mainwaring into the script, is about an extraterrestrial invasion of the fictional town of Santa Mira in California. The film has its own twist and does not start with an obvious invasion, and takes the audience alike the protagonists, particularly the main one, Dr. Miles Bennel, the town GP, through a mysterious puzzle to solve and explain the sudden strange change of the locals’ behaviours. A woman visited by the doctor, claims his uncle with whom she lives is not real, but an impostor and a boy in fright runs away from his mother on the street, almost hit by the doctor’s car.  Later on more than half way through the film, we learn that the change of people becoming impostor and emotionless is an extraterrestrial invasion plan and attack. The real humans are duplicated by the spores that had been dropped down earlier onto the nearby farms, and un-earthy impostor copies would burst out of the huge seed pods.

 

Another example of popular cinematic art:

Like “Roman Holiday”, a popular box office delight that could reach artistic level and please lay audience and critics alike, and rank among the greatest films of all time in our list, “Invasion of the Body Snatchers” as well is a popular and box office hit that did the same as a prototype of science fiction horror and thriller film. Achieving this is not done with the content of the story or by much of special effects or huge spending, but by the power of story telling and showing on the screen. The film in fact is more of a thriller and mystery discovery than a horror and even science fiction. The thrill of the mystery solving of the locals, who one after another changing in behavior, creates a mass hysteria in the whole town, to be solved in the lead by Miles and his  girlfriend, Becky (Dana Wynter).        

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The Greatest films of all time: 46.The Burmese Harp (1956)(Japan)

Introduction:

Another masterpiece from Japanese cinema, but this time not of subject of samurai or its subdued culture after the war, but a sentimental anti-war film that is not happening in Japan, but in Burma.  One of the most unrecognized films of all time, “The Burmese Harp” based on a children’s novel of the same name, was directed by Kon Ichikawa with the screenplay by his wife, Natto Wada. The film that in Japan was released initially in two parts on different dates, and later on as a double feature with B movies totaled 143 minutes, but its international release was cut into 116 minutes. Perhaps due to its initial split release in Japan, the film was not received well, but its remake in 1985 again by Ichikawa, became the second largest Japanese box office hit up to that time. It was praised internationally, nominated for the best foreign language film at the academy awards, and won ovation of the audience at the Venice Film Festival and its San Giorgio Prize.

 

Happening in the Burmese jungle during the second world war, a clash between the two invading Japanese and British armies, the film unlike many other anti-war features portrays the futility of any war in the best sentimental and humane way. While showing the casualties of the war on the Japanese, with a long history of her east Asian invasions, now facing another foreign occupier with oppression, the film reaches the human souls for interconnectedness and not interruptions. Although showing scenes of mass killings and casualties of the war, the main theme of the film is music that connects the souls more than words and show humans have no reasons to kill each other.

 

In the search of Peace:

The film revolves around Mizushima, a Japanese soldier who plays harp and sings to raise the morale of the soldiers. Like the government of Japan holding back on the surrender in the war until the disastrous atomic bombardment of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a group of Japanese soldiers in a cave refuse to surrender to the British and decide to continue fighting. Mizushima trying to convince them of the ending of the war and the futility of continuing to fight, out of national pride and stubbornness, is attacked and knocked down by his comrades. The finale is the massacre of everyone in the battalion by the British bombardment, except Mizushima who’s already passed out on the ground.

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The Greatest films of all time: 45. On the Waterfront (1954)(USA)

Introduction:

“On the Waterfront” is the second major film of Elia Kazan with Marlon Brando and Karl Malden, since their first endeavor, “A Streetcar named Desire”, but this time with a fuller cast including Rod Steiger, Lee J. Cobb, and introducing Eva Marie Saint. Elia Kazan starting on Broadway introduced Marlon Brando with their first cooperation on the screen, and again this time with a full power house of cast, stamped his influence for long years to come on American and the world cinema. As a theatrical director, he brought the art of theatrical acting or method acting to the cinema, emphasized on the role and power of acting on screen and established the actors studio as a theoretical back up. This while took away the important visual component of the art of filmmaking, enriched cinema with the art and significance of script and acting that were ignored or were not known to this extend before.

 

Elia Kazan style or the acting cinema, put the scenario and the acting at the centerpiece of the films, popularized it and conceived a new era of Hollywood as the world of actors. This style was very dominant for decades until it lost some power to the influence of special effects and digitalism in cinema in later years. In these types of cinematic works, such as “On the Waterfront” there is less influence of camera work and art directing, but acting and acting directing. In Kazan’s work, the actors have lots of freedom in acting their own ways and improvise as there quite a few of such scenes in this film, like his others. Many actors liked to work with Kazan and called him the best actors director and Marlon Brando expressed about him “He was an arch-manipulator of actors’ feelings, and he was extraordinarily talented; perhaps we will never see his like again.”

 

“On the Waterfront” as a powerful socialist workers movement film and a big surprise for Hollywood at the time of McCarthy’s communist witch hunt, is also a mark of ambivalence on and off the screen. On the screen, Terry (Marlon Brando) an ex-prizefighter had been robbed off his career by his older educated brother, Charley (Rod Steiger) who’s the brain of the mobs, headed by the trade unionist, Johnny (Lee J. Cobb) to betting at the interest of the mobs. Terry, a victim of his surrounding and his own laziness and lack of intellect, associates in the murder of a friend, Joey by the mobs, the brother of Edie (Eva Marie Saint) whom he falls in love with and walks on the path of redemption. Off the screen, Elia Kazan, a socialist in the theatre before joining Hollywood and even in this film, through inquisition and force of the anti-communist committee before making the film, betrays his comrades by revealing some names including his own famous writer friend, Arthur Miller, who even started writing the first draft of the script.   

On the Waterfront: A Revolutionary Tale of Redemption

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The Greatest films of all time: 44. Gate of Hell (1953)(Japan)

Introduction:

Japan with a history in filmmaking since the inception of cinema, never rose at a world race level and was not much recognized at an international level, until the 1950’s that is considered the golden age of Japanese cinema. With Rashomon of Kurosawa in 1950, this rich cinema became known to the world, so that any non-commercial film from Japan was the subject of accolade of western critics. Although none of these films could match or even parallel with the Kurosawa’s masterpiece, the Japanese films in the 50’s such as Ikiru, Ugetsu, seven Samurai, Godzilla, and specially Tokyo Story harvested many awards worldwide, and even the latter dethroned Citizen Kane in the Sight and Sound’s 2012 director’s poll. But only “Gate of Hell” by the Japanese veteran actor and director, Teinosuke Kinugasa came out of this land of rising sun, as another shocking masterpiece hard to resist not to praise.

 

The film, the first Japanese film in color out of the country, was also the first to win the palm d’Or or the grand prize award of the 1954 Cannes Film Festival. It also won the best foreign language film in 1955 Academy honorary award, best costume design and best color awards of that year of the Oscar. “Gate of Hell” also won the 1954 New York Film Critics Circle Award for best foreign language film and the Golden Leopard at the Locarno International Film Festival. “Gate of Hell” stands out as another Japanese cinema masterpiece since Rashomon, not for all the above awards and recognitions, as often these could be meaningless, but as another wakeup call for what cinema as an art medium could achieve, that had already been lost in the west to commercialism and popularism of the time.  

 

The film, a celebration of colors by Eastman for the first time in Japan, opens up with a modern time recitation of the Heiji rebellion of 12thcentury Japan, invading the emperor palace. A lady-in-waiting, Kesa, the wife of a samurai, Wataru, escapes the raid and lands at the house of another samurai, Morito, who remains loyal to the emperor unlike his brother and kills a traitor. Morito first not knowing Kesa being married, falls in love with her and when he is offered any prize for his loyalty and bravery, he wishes Kesa as his wife. Following the theme of Rashomon mixed with a tint of the American “Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans” of 1927, “Gate of Hell” is a shocking storyline for any culture, even the western.

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The Greatest films of all time: 43. Roman Holiday (1953)(USA)

Introduction:

“Roman Holiday” is perhaps the best example of a popular or commercial film that borders with the film as an art medium. The simplicity and tenderness of the film reminds us of “The Bicycle Thieves”, but in a fairy tale drama and comedy. “Roman Holiday” is also perhaps the first modern fairy tale of a royal princess getting bored and suffocated of royal life, escaping to the reality of everyday of common people, who themselves may not appreciate their simple happiness. The film is also one of the first not to be about two lover characters on quite different sides of life, but about an eternal city, Rome in modern time, after the destruction of the world war II. Finally the film is the first major feature for Audrey Hepburn, an unknown actress until then, who brought a simple beauty and a gentle character on and off the screen to the cinema and deservedly won the best acting academy award.

 

A Cinematic Commoner:

As the crown princess Ann meets the commoner journalist Joe Bradley, the art film meets the common/popular film. The film written basically by Dalton Trumbo, who was not credited until a few decades later, for being blacklisted as a communist and in jail at the time, was William Wyler’s first major achievement since “The best of our lives” in 1946. The film looks like being shot spontaneously or by improvisation when takes us along with the princess and the journalist around Rome. This is as documentary and honest as “The bicycle thieves” was. At the same time the film does not boast and pour on the screen, claiming to be anything beyond an ordinary film for the pleasure of the audience. In this manner, the film unwantedly gets close to Chaplin’s films that are first for the people then for the consideration of cinematic art. Perhaps that’s the reason the film to this day has not been much credited by the critics and the film experts, though they may similarly like and enjoy it as any commoner.

 

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The Greatest films of all time: 6.Singin’ in the Rain (1952)(USA)

Introduction:

In art in general including the cinema, there have been many adaptations that have advanced the original work, other than the originality. But “Singin’ in the Rain” is an exception that’s not just very original, but no adaptation has ever been able to advance and add to this not only the greatest musical film, but one of the best example of a cinematic masterpiece. The only exception that is also mentioned in the film itself, not to be the first musical film, that is “The Jazz Singer”. But “Singin’ in the Rain” surpasses its prototype for being so original, innovative, multifaceted all at the same time, that barely any other film in the history of cinema has been able to achieve. Gene Kelly who played a year before this film in “An American in Paris” and earlier acted and directed other musicals, could not get even close to what he achieved in “Singin’ in the Rain” in acting, directing and choreography of this great film.

 

A Cinematic achievement at every level:

“Singin’ in the Rain” is an example of what cinema could achieve as a moving visual art. With its all innovation of choreography, music, songs and dancing in every frame, that no future musical films could achieve, it is not only the best musical ever made, but the best to watch to this day. It’s not just about being original, as no musical even after has been so colorful, choreographic, rich in dances, costumes and at the same time quite entertaining, comic and a bit at the end melodramatic. The storyline falls well in the place and other than the first few minutes of a slow beginning, there are no flaws throughout the film. “Singin’ in the Rain” is where the art of filmmaking meets the art of entertainment.

Considered by many one of the greatest films, and included in many greatest films list, and number 5 at the AFI 100 best American films, “Singin’ in the Rain” deserves well to jump back in time and stand above many original films in our list, including its prototype, “The Jazz Singer”. The title of “Singin’ in the Rain” could be somewhat a misnomer, as there is only one scene of dancing and singing in the rain, only by Gene Kelly. In dancing, Donald O’Conner and in singing Debbie Reynolds surpass even Gene Kelly, so make it three actors in the first role in a way, with no supremacy of one over the other. The film is also one of the rare films to be adapted for a musical show on Broadway. It has also been listed in AFI’s 100 years not only as the 5thbest American film, but on the top of every other list of AFI, such as the best laughs, the best passions, songs, heroes and Villains.

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The Greatest films of all time: 42.A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)(USA)

Introduction:

“A Streetcar Named Desire” film directed by Elia Kazan, was based on the play of the same name by the great American playwright, Tennessee Williams, written in 1947 and awarded the prestigious Pulitzer prize in 1948. This great American play adapted for the screen was the first play to be casted and directed by the same actors and director both on the stage and on the screen. The Broadway production of the play was also directed by Elia Kazan and starred Marlon Brando, Karl Malden and Kim Hunter. The only difference was Vivien Leigh who did not appear on the Broadway stage, but in London production in 1949, directed by Laurence Olivier. Tennessee Williams also collaborated with Elia Kazan and Oscar Saul to write the screenplay.

 

There is no need to comment on Tennessee Williams who along with Arthur Miller and Eugene O’Neil are considered the three foremost of American playwrights. He has written many other classics for the stage that many of them such as “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof” and “Sweet Bird of Youth” have also been adapted for the screen. His “A Streetcar Named Desire” is widely considered as one of the three major American plays along “Long Day’s Journey into Night” of Eugene O’Neil and “Death of a Salesman” of Arthur Miller.

Elia Kazan who directed both the stage play and the film was a rarity in American cinema, in many aspects including working on these two performing art media. He was a Greek-American, born in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) to his Greek parents, moved to America at age four with his parents, that his story of immigration could be read and seen in his book and film, “America, America”. He studied drama art at Williams College and Yale School of drama, and acted professionally for eight years, before joining the “Group Theatre” in 1932 and later on co-founded the “Actors studio” in 1947 with Robert Lewis and Cheryl Crawford. 

 

In the Actors Studio, Kazan along Lee Strasberg introduced the popular “Method Acting” that dominated the Broadway and from there was taken to the Hollywood and in the films with such classic performances of great actors such as Marlon Brando, James Dean, Paul Newman, Al Pacino, Dustin Hoffman, Jane Fonda and Jack Nicholson among others. Kazan was the principal factor behind rearing quite several great American actors such as Marlon Brando, James Dean, Warren Beatty, Gregory Peck, Montgomery Clift, Kirk Douglas, Faye Dunaway, Patricia Neal, Jack Nicholson and Robert De Niro.

Kazan brought the theatrical acting method on to the screen, and for the first time, gave such importance to acting in cinema, so this element became very essential in films since. He was an actor-director and according to many actors working with him, the best, as Marlon Brando hails him humbly in his autobiography:

I have worked with many movie directors—some good, some fair, some terrible. Kazan was the best actors’ director by far of any I’ve worked for… the only one who ever really stimulated me, got into a part with me and virtually acted it with me… he chose good actors, encouraged them to improvise, and then improvised on the improvisation… He gave his cast freedom and … was always emotionally involved in the process and his instincts were perfect… I’ve never seen a director who became as deeply and emotionally involved in a scene… he got so wrought up that he started chewing on his hat. He was an arch-manipulator of actors’ feelings, and he was extraordinarily talented; perhaps we will never see his like again.”

An all Emotional Acting Classic:

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The Greatest films of all time: 41.The African Queen (1951)(USA)

Introduction:

A film that is based on the novel of “The African Queen” of C.S. Forester of 1935, is about a British boat of the same name as the title of the film, which at the end heroically with explosives hits and destroys a German navy during the first world war. This at the best could be a film like “Das Boot” of Wolfgang Peterson in recent years, but in the hands of American master, John Huston, from the start of re-writing the script that he often pitches in his films to the direction, would be a master classic like no other.

 

Only in the beginning and the end scenes of the film, one would notice that the film is happening during the world war I, in a German occupied village of East Africa. The film basically is about the voyage of the African Queen captain, Charlie (Humphrey Bogart) who takes on sister Rose (Katherine Hepburn) on his boat over the Ulanga river out to the lake and safety. Adding to this first adventurous and dangerous trips, passing through a few wild rafts and a waterfall, and attacks by Germans from their fort above, is attacking and destroying the German navy at the entrance to the lake a the end of the film.

 

On a beautiful and colorful but dangerous wild life background of the African river running through a jungle, that was rightly filmed in Technicolor, the film is all about what is going on between the two on the boat. The relationship between the gentle full of etiquette British Christian missioner, sister Rose and the rough and alcoholic Canadian captain Charlie, is an original and one of the best ever screened. The film in addition to its twisted few adventures along the way, holds emotional and twists that ends in a romance, changing the whole relationship between the two travelers. Again in the hands of Huston, both actors play their best in unusual and unexpected roles for both, and this time while both were nominated for academy awards, only Bogart wins it as his only Oscar award of his life.

Another Classic Beyond Borders:

While in early 1950’s, Hollywood was self-absorbed with movie themes about herself and awarding themselves like “All about Eve” and “Sunset Boulevard”, John Huston, once again after “Treasures of Sierra Madre” broke the convention and took us beyond the borders with “The African Queen”. His “Treasures of Sierra Madre”, the first American film being shot out of Hollywood and on real location in the roughs of Mexico, was followed only a few of years later by “The African Queen”, being shot in location in the East African rivers and jungle. This time in Technicolor, the film was not just rich in touching the human’s relationship and inner natures, but their struggles for survival in the wild and while at the stake of enemy at war.

 

The film about the relationship between two, opposite and different in many ways, on a small boat on a wild river in Africa, is a rarity in cinema, specially the American’s. This time different than “Treasures of Sierra Madre”, the film while again dialogue dependent, but not as heavy and philosophical, but simple, ordinary, reaching more the depth of humans’ feelings, so at the end draws the two different and opposite to each other. The film with its beautiful cinematography and gripping acting in two unusual roles for two popular Hollywood actors, is heart warming, adventurous and romantic.

 

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The Greatest films of all time: 5. Rashomon (1950)(Japan)

Introduction:

Imagine the art of cinema without “Kurosawa”, his influence on this medium and “Rashomon”. Akira Kurosawa who is more known in the western world and perhaps anywhere else in the world for his great film “Seven Samurai” that has been well adapted by the American cinema as “Magnificent Seven”, entered the film industry as a painter. Then after a few years of working as an assistant director, he made a few feature films such as “Sanshiro Sugata” (1943), “The most beautiful” (1944, when at the set met his actress wife), “Drunken Angel” (1948) and “Stray Dog” (1949), before becoming world wide popular with his masterpiece “Rashomon”. With this film, Kurosawa not only made himself known, but the whole Japanese cinema and quite a few other great directors who were introduced to the world of cinema such as “Yasujiro Ozu, “Kenji Mizogushi”, “Shohei Imamura”, and “Masaki Kobayashi”.   Although Yaujiro Ozu was Kurosawa’s predecessor, but became more known with his later films to the west, such as his “Tokyo Story” (1953) and “Floating Weeds” (1959), all thanks to Rashomon.

 

Kurosawa who took him quite a few years until coming up with his great creation (Rashomon), he could not repeat another masterpiece, despite unrelenting movie making every year. Despite the well receptions of a few of his later works such as “Ikiru” (1952) and “Seven Samurai” (1954) specially in the west, cinema had to wait for another few years until he comes back with a few other masterpieces such as “The Hidden Fortress” (1958), “Yojimob” (1961), “Sanjuro” (1962), “Red Beard” (1965), “Kagemusha” (1980), “Ran” (1985) and finally “Dreams” (1990).    

 

Why Rashomon?

Kurosawa with Rashomon, like De Sica with “Bicycle Thieves” took the art of cinema to another level, and that’s why his film Rashomon, jumps to the number 5 in our greatest films of all time list. But like his role model and master, John Ford who after making “The Grapes of Wrath” in earlier years, and got caught up in his American patriotism to depict the American history of becoming in his westerns, Kurosawa also got caught up in his cultural samuraism!  Kurosawa who apparently descended from a samurai family generation, perhaps felt to depict that part of the historical culture of Japan in his films. He first showed the dark side of the samurai who were simply knights or fighters for the rulers of the time, from 12 to 16thcenturies in Japan, in “Rashomon”, a story of one samurai like many others who became bandits. Later on in his “Seven Samurai”, he attempts for redemption of samurai, by showing their heroic characters in helping the poor assaulted farmers of a village by other bandits.

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